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30 terms

Art 110 Exam 2 CH 3-1

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Design or composition
process; the act or organizing the visual elements to effect a desired aesthetic on a work of art
How artists create compositions
(1.) consciously draw upon design principles. (2.) choose to consciously violate them.
Postmodern
a term used to describe the willfully plural and eclectic art forms of contemporary art
Unity (and its relationship with variety)
oneness or wholeness; a work of art achieves this when its parts seem necessary to the composition
Ways to achieve Unity
Grid, Color harmony, Continuity; Keeping one or more aspects of the works constant
visual unity
unified by color, shape, composition or some other visual design principle
conceptual unity
common theme or concept throughout it.
Emphasis on variety
when artists exaggerate differences rather than similarities
Balance
refers to the distribution of weight in art; the actual or apparent weight int the elements of a composition
actual balance
literally balanced; it can stay upright on its own
pictorial balance
apparent or visual weight of the elements in works that are basically 2D
symmetry
a similarity of form or arrangement on either side of a dividing line or plane.
symmetrical balance
whole of the work has a symmetrical feeling
asymmetrical balance
variations to the right and left side of the composition are more than slight, yet there remains an overall sense of balance; right and left sides of a composition bear visibly different shapes, colors, textures, or other elements and yet the are arranges or "weighted" in such a way that the work feels balanced
bilateral symmetry
pure or formal symmetry; everything in a composition to either side of an actual or imaginary line is the same
horizontal balance
elements on the left and right side f the composition seem to be about equal
vertical balance
the elements at the top and bottom of the composition are in balance
diagonal balance
the elements on either side of a diagonal line dividing the composition are visually equal
radial balance
design elements radiate from the center point; frequently used in ceramics, jewelry, basketry, stained glass, and other crafts
Affects of Imbalance
can create shock and discomfort; can be used to capture a sense of movement
How emphasis creates a focal point
some feature of a work normally captures the viewer's attention; artists use emphasis to focus the viewer's attention
How to create a focal point
Accentuate certain shapes; Intensify colors; use directional line; strategically place objects and images; isolate an object or subject
afocal
eye is continually distracted from one point of interest
Rhythm
Regular repetition; orderly progressions; rhythm can move a viewer visually as well as emotionally; repetitive pattern can be used to lead the eye over the landscape of the work
scale
refers to size; the relative size of an object compared to other objects of its kind, its setting, or human dimensions
Hierarchical Scaling
Used as a way of indicating importance; BIGGER=MORE IMPORTANT; often used in ancient and medieval art
Distortion of scale
alerts the viewer's sense of scale, creating visual shock and humor; can challenge the viewer to rethink the subject and the historical aspects of the object
The Canon of proportions
a set of rules about the body parts and their dimensions relative to one another that became the standard for creating the ideal figure
Golden mean or the golden section
the small part of a work should relate to a larger part of the work as the larger part relates to the whole
Golden rectangle
a rectangle base on the measurements of the golden rectangle