A true fungal pathogen must exhibit what characteristic?
A) Produce spores
B) Produce mycelia
C) Thermal dimorphism
D) Be transmitted by the respiratory route
E) Be distributed worldwide
Which statement regarding the opportunistic fungal pathogens is incorrect?
A) They have a limited degree of virulence
B) They always display thermal dimorphism
C) They are spread by the respiratory or mucocutaneous route
D) They stimulate only weak and short-lived immunity
E) They are distributed worldwide
Where is Histoplasma capsulatum found within the United States?
A) Desert southwest
D) Ohio and Mississippi river valleys
E) Central plains
What occurs when rye plants are infested by Claviceps purpurea and the grain inadvertantly eaten?
A) Necrotic pneumonia
B) Gastrointestinal illness
E) Lung epithelium slough off
Dermatophytoses can be spread by all but which of the following?
B) Public facilities
C) Personal articles
D) Swimming pools
E) Sexual contact
What component of the fungi is most involved in initiating mycoses?
Why are yeasts more invasive than hyphal forms of fungi?
A) Because they multiply more rapidly
B) Because they cannot tolerate high temperatures
C) Because the hyphal forms localize in tissues
D) Because they produce toxins
E) Because they invoke an inflammatory response
Which fungus causes mycoses of the hair, skin, and nails?
E) All dermatophytes
Which class of antifungal drugs inhibits an enzyme in egosterol synthesis and is administered topically to treat dermatophyte infections?
C) Those that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
E) Those that inhibit cell division
What type of fungal infection involves the stratum corneum and occasionally the upper dermis?
Who experiences the majority of cases of histoplasmosis?
A) Elderly females
B) Adult males
D) Teenage females
E) Adolescent males
Where is the primary location of Histoplasma capsulatum microconidia growth?
A) Within the cytoplasm of macrophages
B) Within red blood cells
C) In the circulatory system
D) In the cerebrospinal fluid
E) In the meninges
Which of the following skin conditions is not associated with Malassezia furfur?
A) White piedra
C) Seborrheic dermatitis
D) Tinea versicolor
Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis have been associated with all but which of the following?
D) Hurricane Isabel
E) Archeological digs
How is coccidioidomycosis diagnosed?
A) Examination of fecal material for hyphae
B) Examination of cerebrospinal fluid for Gram-negative cocci
C) Examination of the throat for the presence of a pseudomembrane
D) Examination of the chest for local abscesses
E) Examination of sputum, spinal fluid, or biopsies for spherules
Which is not a chief target of blastomycosis infection?
Most incidents of human sporotrichosis arise following what event?
A) Inhalation of spores
B) A puncture or scratch wound
C) Consumption of contaminated food
D) The bite of a tick
E) Consumption of contaminated water
What is the causative agent of athlete's foot?
A) Candida albicans
What is the Latin name that corresponds to athlete's foot?
A) Tinea corporis
B) Tinea pedis
C) Tinea barbae
D) Tinea cruris
E) Tinea unguium
hat organisms cause fungal infections that are strictly confined to nonliving tissues and its derivatives?
Candida albicans causes local infections in all but which of the following sites?
What factor is important in the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans?
D) Glycoprotein spikes
Who typically develops Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci infections?
A) People with deficient immune systems
B) Middle aged men
D) Rose gardeners
E) IV drug users