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Pressure exerted by weight of air. Exerted in all directions, pressure pushing down balances pressure pushing up
How Earth's rotation effects moving objects. In Northern Hemisphere, objects deflected at right of path of motion. Southern Hemisphere deflected at left. All air deflected at right angle. It influences wind direction, strongest at poles, strongest wind= greater deflection of Coriolis effect
Fast moving "rivers" of air that occur above friction layer. Move in east-to-west direction
Cyclonic vs. Anticyclonic winds
Pressure gradient, friction, Coriolis effect applied to pressure center in Northern Hemisphere, winds blow inwards and counterclockwise around a low pressure. Southern Hemisphere opposite. Both Hemispheres friction causes inward or outward in cyclone or anticyclone
Fair Weather associated with anticyclone (high pressure)
Descending air, clear weather, dry conditions
Low pressure (cyclone) system in US moves from West to East
Produce bad weather, paths are unpredictable, takes a week to cross country
Weather reports emphasize locations and possible paths of cyclones and anticyclones, low pressure produce bad weather at any season
2 belts of wind blowing constantly from east to west on north and south sides of subtropical highs from equator
Dominant west-to-east motion- characterized regions on poleward side of subtropical highs
Stormy frontal zone separating cold air masses of polar origin from warm air masses of tropical origin
Influence of continents
Only truly continuous pressure belts is sub polar low in South Hemisphere (no land masses to disrupt flow)
Seasonal reversal of wind direction associated with large continents, especially Asia. In winter, wind blows from land to sea ( seasonal high-pressure system) In summer, wind blows from sea to land (seasonal low pressure= rainy)
Land and sea Breezes
In sumer mountains, land surface is heated more intensely during daylight hours than water
Name given to periodic warming in central and eastern Pacific. Cold water is replaced with warm equatorial water. Major el nino can cause extreme weather
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