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Soviet Union History, Russia 1853-1992

Soviet Union History, Russia 1853-1992
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Crimean War 1853-1856
The result of losing Bethlehem to France.
O.F.E.A vs. Russia
Darya Sevastopolskaya
Female Russia medic who helped out during Crimean War.
1861 Emancipation of Serfs
One of Alexander II action, started Redemptive Dues and changed the economy towards more industrial.
Obshchina
were serfs stayed under strict conditions, peasant communities.
Redemptive Dues
The 40year program-freed Serfs had to payback money to nobles through the state
Intelligentsia
Educated nobel group, were called radicals-knew Russia and western thinking.
Slavophiles
A group of Intelligentsia-conservatives who wanted to keep Russia the way it has been.
Westernizers
A group of Intelligentsia-liberals
Alexander Herzen
Liberal Reformist-wanted representative democracy like England.
Nikolai Chernychevsky
Liberal Economist- exiled to Siberia for 20 years.
Anarchism
Minimization of state, sub-group of Socialism.
Leo Tolstoy
Wrote "War & Peace", believed in peaceful protest.
Mikhail Bakunin
Nobel Anarchist- Believed peasants (freed serfs) could overthrow Russian Empire.
Narodniki/Narodnichestvo
People/Populist movement
To the People Movement/Mad Summer of 1874
Intelligentsia went to the peasants to discuss their revolution plans. Plan backfires and intelligentsia members get arrested.
Land & Freedom/ 2nd Land & Freedom
Narodnichestvo movement/ Splits up into 3 fractions
George Plekhanov/Liberation of Labor
Started Marxist movement while in exile in Geneve/ one of the fractions of the Narodnichestvo Movement
Alexander Ilyich Ulyanov/Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
two revolutionary brothers-Hanged for assassination Alexander II/ Lenin
Socialist Revolutionary Party
Focused on peasantry led revolution w/peasants. 41% of congress.
Russian Social Democratic Workers Party
Founded in Minsk,1893. Meeting in 1903 splints party into 2 groups. Bolsheviks vs Mensheviks
Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, studied the lives of the working class and founder of RSDWP.
Bolsheviks/Mensheviks
Majority/Minority - 24% to 3% of congress.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Losing war for Rus. enemy had major naval advantage that destroyed Rus. Navy. Ended by US treaty.
Father Gapon/Bloody Sunday
Police Agent who led workers to red square to ask for a raise/ The mass killing of workers at red square by guards.
Bourgeoise/Proletariat
Owner of Production/ Seller of time (laborer)
Soviet of Workers Deputies 1905 & 1917
A group of factory workers that set up legislature/ a massive strike led by Leon Trotsky.
Leon Trotsky
Menshevik who led the soviet workers deputies at St.Petersburg
October Manifesto 1905
Tsar Nicholas issued laws of liberal citizenship (duma) just like US bill of rights.
Stollypin
the act of hanging the revolutionaries.
Kadets/Octoberists
Liberal party (democrats)/wanted constitutional monarchy.
April Theses
Lenins return from exile in germany, gives speech to the people- take charge and be a socialist.
Peace, Bread, and Land/ Power to the soviets
Take Rus out of war/ food for everyone/ split up land of nobility . Don't listen to Provision government.
Kornilov Affair
Military leader-wanted to take military control of Rus and get out of war. "Train accident" by workers party.
Alexander Kerensky
socialist/prime minister who leads the previsionary government.
Council of People's Commissars (SOVNARKOM)
The government that is set up after the fall of the Romanov Dynasty and previsionary government.
Brest-Litovsk
agreement to end war with germany gave up ukraine, poland, baltic states.
War Communism
government buying food from peasants at a fixed price/ taking over of industry by state.
Cheka
Secret police force created by Bolsheviks, became the KGB.
On Party Unity
Develop Democratic Centralism- no organized group to voice opinions. Eliminated war communism with NEP.
NEP (New Economic Policy)
State control of key industry ex. electrical, road, military.
Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili
Stalin, Gensec of Bolsheviks
Lev Kamenev
one of the members of Bosheviks, head of Moscow
Nikolai Bukharin
Economic theorist of NEP, executed by stalin
Party Congress elects Central Committee elects Politburo
"Soviets" come to party congress for election of collective leadership who is a small group who chooses the Gensec.
Kulaks
Stalins economical scape goats/ rich peasants who could hire work
Collectivization
State owned land to family/ is the basis for the rapid heavy industrialization. part of the five year plan.
five year plans
Focused on rapid heavy industrialization in a command economy. issued by stalin
Bureaucratic Centralism
Bureaucracy that controlled everything in state/people. ex.. art and literature was about state, family was to reproduce for state
Socialism in one Country
Socialism should stay in Russia and not be a peoples movement, only soviet.
Great purges (1936-1938)
the execution of Russian Soviet Party members, formally old Bolsheviks.
Purge of the Red Army
the execution of the red army leaders. 90% of all generals were killed.
German-Soviet nonaggression treaty
1939 agreement between Nazi Germany and USSR. Secretly spilt up baltic states.
General Secretary
the leader of the politburo/soviet union.
Desalinization
Krushnev's opinion on Stalin at the 20th party congress.
Trust in Cadres
Brezhnev main party representation, were in central committee.
Zastoi
Stagnation during 80's, economically and in politburo
Perestroika
Restructure in USSR by Gorbachev, renounces true socialism by lenin.
Glasnost'
Openest in society, people were allowed to criticize the government.
Chernobyl
-worst nuclear disaster in history
-meltdown in Ukraine
Demokratizatsiya
public elections for congress of USSR, allows for more parties in USSR.
New Thinking
-Reduce nuclear weapons
-treaty with USA
-stop worrying about other states policy
Boris Yeltsin
-controlled russian legislature
-president of russia
-lead coup against Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
general secretary of USSR
has 2 coups against his reformation