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Soviet Union History, Russia 1853-1992

Crimean War 1853-1856

The result of losing Bethlehem to France.
O.F.E.A vs. Russia

Darya Sevastopolskaya

Female Russia medic who helped out during Crimean War.

1861 Emancipation of Serfs

One of Alexander II action, started Redemptive Dues and changed the economy towards more industrial.


were serfs stayed under strict conditions, peasant communities.

Redemptive Dues

The 40year program-freed Serfs had to payback money to nobles through the state


Educated nobel group, were called radicals-knew Russia and western thinking.


A group of Intelligentsia-conservatives who wanted to keep Russia the way it has been.


A group of Intelligentsia-liberals

Alexander Herzen

Liberal Reformist-wanted representative democracy like England.

Nikolai Chernychevsky

Liberal Economist- exiled to Siberia for 20 years.


Minimization of state, sub-group of Socialism.

Leo Tolstoy

Wrote "War & Peace", believed in peaceful protest.

Mikhail Bakunin

Nobel Anarchist- Believed peasants (freed serfs) could overthrow Russian Empire.


People/Populist movement

To the People Movement/Mad Summer of 1874

Intelligentsia went to the peasants to discuss their revolution plans. Plan backfires and intelligentsia members get arrested.

Land & Freedom/ 2nd Land & Freedom

Narodnichestvo movement/ Splits up into 3 fractions

George Plekhanov/Liberation of Labor

Started Marxist movement while in exile in Geneve/ one of the fractions of the Narodnichestvo Movement

Alexander Ilyich Ulyanov/Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

two revolutionary brothers-Hanged for assassination Alexander II/ Lenin

Socialist Revolutionary Party

Focused on peasantry led revolution w/peasants. 41% of congress.

Russian Social Democratic Workers Party

Founded in Minsk,1893. Meeting in 1903 splints party into 2 groups. Bolsheviks vs Mensheviks


Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, studied the lives of the working class and founder of RSDWP.


Majority/Minority - 24% to 3% of congress.

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

Losing war for Rus. enemy had major naval advantage that destroyed Rus. Navy. Ended by US treaty.

Father Gapon/Bloody Sunday

Police Agent who led workers to red square to ask for a raise/ The mass killing of workers at red square by guards.


Owner of Production/ Seller of time (laborer)

Soviet of Workers Deputies 1905 & 1917

A group of factory workers that set up legislature/ a massive strike led by Leon Trotsky.

Leon Trotsky

Menshevik who led the soviet workers deputies at St.Petersburg

October Manifesto 1905

Tsar Nicholas issued laws of liberal citizenship (duma) just like US bill of rights.


the act of hanging the revolutionaries.


Liberal party (democrats)/wanted constitutional monarchy.

April Theses

Lenins return from exile in germany, gives speech to the people- take charge and be a socialist.

Peace, Bread, and Land/ Power to the soviets

Take Rus out of war/ food for everyone/ split up land of nobility . Don't listen to Provision government.

Kornilov Affair

Military leader-wanted to take military control of Rus and get out of war. "Train accident" by workers party.

Alexander Kerensky

socialist/prime minister who leads the previsionary government.

Council of People's Commissars (SOVNARKOM)

The government that is set up after the fall of the Romanov Dynasty and previsionary government.


agreement to end war with germany gave up ukraine, poland, baltic states.

War Communism

government buying food from peasants at a fixed price/ taking over of industry by state.


Secret police force created by Bolsheviks, became the KGB.

On Party Unity

Develop Democratic Centralism- no organized group to voice opinions. Eliminated war communism with NEP.

NEP (New Economic Policy)

State control of key industry ex. electrical, road, military.

Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili

Stalin, Gensec of Bolsheviks

Lev Kamenev

one of the members of Bosheviks, head of Moscow

Nikolai Bukharin

Economic theorist of NEP, executed by stalin

Party Congress elects Central Committee elects Politburo

"Soviets" come to party congress for election of collective leadership who is a small group who chooses the Gensec.


Stalins economical scape goats/ rich peasants who could hire work


State owned land to family/ is the basis for the rapid heavy industrialization. part of the five year plan.

five year plans

Focused on rapid heavy industrialization in a command economy. issued by stalin

Bureaucratic Centralism

Bureaucracy that controlled everything in state/people. ex.. art and literature was about state, family was to reproduce for state

Socialism in one Country

Socialism should stay in Russia and not be a peoples movement, only soviet.

Great purges (1936-1938)

the execution of Russian Soviet Party members, formally old Bolsheviks.

Purge of the Red Army

the execution of the red army leaders. 90% of all generals were killed.

German-Soviet nonaggression treaty

1939 agreement between Nazi Germany and USSR. Secretly spilt up baltic states.

General Secretary

the leader of the politburo/soviet union.


Krushnev's opinion on Stalin at the 20th party congress.

Trust in Cadres

Brezhnev main party representation, were in central committee.


Stagnation during 80's, economically and in politburo


Restructure in USSR by Gorbachev, renounces true socialism by lenin.


Openest in society, people were allowed to criticize the government.


-worst nuclear disaster in history
-meltdown in Ukraine


public elections for congress of USSR, allows for more parties in USSR.

New Thinking

-Reduce nuclear weapons
-treaty with USA
-stop worrying about other states policy

Boris Yeltsin

-controlled russian legislature
-president of russia
-lead coup against Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev

general secretary of USSR
has 2 coups against his reformation

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