102 terms

Egypt Grade 6 SS

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Terms in this set (...)

cataract
natural barrier that protected Egypt in the south.
delta
fertile marshland
shadoof
created by Egyptian farmers
a bucket attached to a long pole that lifts water from the Nile and empties in to a basin
papyrus/paper
a reed plant that grows along the Nile
used to make rope, sandals, baskets and river rafts
later used to make paper
hieroglyphics
a complex writing system made of pictures and sound symbols
dynasty
a line of rulers from one family, usually father to son
theocracy
a government in which the same person is both political leader and religious leader
pharaoh
Egyptian ruler
originally meant "great house"
bureaucrat
took care of pharaoh's business, member of upper class
carried out pharaoh's orders
embalming
a process to preserve a dead body
done by Egyptians to prepare the pharaoh's body for the afterlife
pyramid
giant tomb for the pharaoh's body
incense
a material burned for its pleasant smell
envoy
pharaohs and rulers exchanged to maintain close ties
savanna
grassy plains
textiles
woven cloth
Why is King Tut so famous today?
King Tut was only 10 years old when he became a pharaoh. Even thought King Tut played a small role in the history of Egypt, he is the most famous of the pharaohs. A British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered Tut's tomb. It was amazing because most tombs of the pharaohs had been robbed by thieves. Tut's tomb, however, contained the pharaoh's mummy and many treasures, including a brilliant gold mask of the young ruler's face.
Who was the first great engineer who built the pyramids?
The first great engineer who built the pyramids was Imhotep (ihm-HOH-tehp).
What was the capital city of Egypt during the Old Kingdom?
Memphis
Who invaded Kush and destroyed Meroe?
The armies of Axum invaded Kush and destroyed Meroe.
Who is the pharaoh who tried to start a new religion based on one god, Aton?
Amenhotep (ah-muhn-HOH-tehp). Amenhotep believed that Egypt's priests had grown too powerful and wealthy. He feld threatened by their power. To lessen the priests authority, Amenhotep started a new religion. He introduced the worship of Aton (AHT-n) the sun god, as Egypt's only god.
What is the capital city of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom?
Thebes (THEEBZ)
What are the names of the Egyptian sun god? River god?
sun god=Re, river god=Hapi
Who united Upper and Lower Egypt?
Narmer (Nahr-mer)
Name the king who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt?
An Egyptian prince named Ahmose (AH-mohs) formed an army and drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.
Why did Egyptians build pyramids?
(1) for the king's after life and (2) to honor their work (3) protect body and treasures from floods and robbers
In which social class did farmers belong and what were their lives like?
They were in the 2nd LOWEST class. They worked on land owned by wealthy nobles and paid rent with portion of their crops. They lived in simple 1-Room houses. Ate bread and fruits.
How was Meroe different from a typical Egyptian or Kushite city?
It contained iron furnaces.
What rights did ancient Egyptian women have?
They held a legal status similar to men. They could own property, buy and sell goods and obtain divorces.
Where is the Nile River?
In Egypt. Feeds into the Med Sea.
How long is the Nile River?
About 4000 miles. the Exact is 4,258
What resources does the Nile River provide?
silt
papyrus
water
fertile soil
transportation
drinking water
irrigation
bathe
Why did people settle near the Nile River?
It provided fertile soil, crops and safety from outside invaders, and was the only source of water in Egypt.
Why was the Nile River important to early Egyptians?
The Nile River was the only water supply in the area. Its dangerous cataract and marshy savannas protected Egypt
How did the Nile River and nearby deserts help the Egyptians?
The Nile River provided safety, water, fertile soil, transportation and trade.
What 3 ways did the Nile River help famers grow food?
flooding left silt
water for crops
irrigation
water for wheat, barley, flax and reeds
What were hieroglyphics and papyrus?
Hieroglyphics were used to record data. Papyrus was something to write on.
Why did Egypt need an organized government?
Helped with famers, irrigation, plants and food source.
Who was Narmer and how did he help brig Egypt together?
He was the king of Upper Egypt and conquered Lower Egypt and established a dynasty. He married Lower Egypt's princess as a unified strategy.
What is a theocracy? Who is the pharaoh?
A theocracy is a political and religious leader, also known as a pharaoh.
List the pharaoh's political and religious responsibilities.
Political: controling Egypt, giving order to the land, strong ruler to unify the kingdom and wise and far reaching leadership.
Religious: Pharaoh was the son of Re
He was the god on earth who protected Egypt.
Participated in ceremonies.
How did ancient Egyptians learn about the human body and medicine?
Egyptians used about the human body by embalming.
One reason that Ancient Egyptians built pyramid tombs was to protect dead pharaoh's bodies from heat and dust. T/F
True
Pyramids were built quickly by only a few hundred people. T/F
False. They were built slowly with thousands of people.
The Egyptians developed an understanding about math and about the stars and sun while building the pyramids. T/F
True.
The Great Pyramid was once the world's tallest structure. T/F
True.
Who were in the Upper Class?
Pharaoh's and his family
priests, nobles, war commanders
Who were in the Middle Class?
traders and artisans
shop keepers and scribes
Who were in the Lower Class?
farmers, herders, unskilled workers
Describe family life in ancient Egypt.
In ancient Egypt people lived in many different ways depending on social class. Upper class folks lived an easy life compared to middle and lower class. All of people lived under the pharaoh.
List four ways that the Egyptians gained wealth and land during the MiddleKingdom.
better trade
made a dynasty
lasted 405 years
made peace
conquered other lands
demanded tribute
improved farm lands and irrigations systems
Which Egyptian arts experienced a golden age during the Middle Kingdom?
The Egyptian experienced colored walls of tombs and painted sculptures, temples with colorful scenes during the golden age.
Name two things that the Egyptians learned from the Hyksos.
The Egyptians learned how to use a horse drawn chariot and Hyksos weapons.
Why was Queen Hatshepsut an unusal leader?
Hatshepsut was unusual because she dressed like a man. She was the first female Pharaoh .
What foods id the Egyptians trade with the Phoenicians?
beads
metal tools,gold, ivory, wood, boats, wheat, paper and cooper
Did the changes made by Amenhotep have a positive or negative impact on the Egyptian empire?
Amenhotep had a negative impact because he wasted a lot of time. Egypt grew weak and lost a lot of land.
_______was successful in regaining____for the Egyptian empire.
Rames II; territory
Under Ramses, the Egyptians regained territory by warring and then signing a ______with the ________.
Peace treaty; Hities King.
Many of the New Kingdom pharaohs devoted themselves to peaceful activities, such as building ______, which helped the Egyptian _______.
Temples; economy.
By the 900's B>C> Egypt fell to a series of invaders, including the _____, the ________ and finally the __________.
Libyians, Kushikos, and Assyrians.
Explain ancient Egypt went into a decline.
Because Rames II died. They also got into too many wars. Spent too much money on wars. They suffered from too many invasions.
Why was the Middle Kingdom a "golden age" for Egypt?
finally had peace
violent for the past 200 years
created a new dynasty
How were the Egyptians able to defeat the Hylksos?
learned how tour the chariot
had Hylkhos' weapsons
prince Amos (Egypt) drove Hylksos
weapons made of bronze and iron
Why was the new kingdom a unique period in ancient Egyptian history?
gained more land
conquered more land
had a lot of power
lots of good
well skilled craftsmen
Why did the Egyptians want to trade with the Phoenicians?
less wars promoted
better relationship
traded beads, metal tools, weapons for gold, ivory, ebony wood, boats
How did the unusual pharaohs change ancient Egypt? What were their names?
King Tut, Amenhotep
King Tut relied on advice from priests and officials because he was so young. Amenhotep tried to change Egypt's religion based on the worship of many deities.
What were the accomplishments of Ramses II?
conquered the region
ruled for 66 years
What are some of the wonders of ancient Egypt that have fascinated other cultures throughout history?
sphinx
pyramids
Nile river flows south to north
Valley of Kings
What was the Rosetta Stone? Why was it a key discover to Egyptian archeology?
A state that had 3 languages from 3 different generations.
Name Egypt's three kingdoms. Give an important achievement of each.
New Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
Old Kingdom
Describe the power and accomplishments o Egypt under Ramses the Great
Ruled for over 60 years
made more temples
had many kids
Why is "lower Egypt" above "Upper Egypt" on a map?
The Nile River flows from South to North
Copare and contrast the form of the earliest pyramid, called mastabas, to the Great Pyramid of Giza. How id pyramid construction change over centuries?
The old was steps and the new raised.
In the opinion of most scholars, what theory best explains how the pyramids were constructed without modern technology?
more steps
things on top of each other
stacked
describe Howard Carter's discover of the tomb of Tutankhamen. Why was the one of the greatest archeological finds of all time?
everything was untouched
lots of gold
mummy
What do we know about the life of King Tut from the artifacts found in his tour?
he was rich
he was powerful
Why is Egypt called "the gift of the Nile"?
life centers and the nile
Explain how Egyptians used the Nile's flood cycle to their benefit.
for canals
farming
Describe the daily life of an ancient Egyptian. How is it similar to life on the Nile River today
play board games
Nubia is located north of Egypt, along the Nile River. T/F
False. Nubia wa located south of Egypt along the Nile River.
Like the Egyptians, the Nubians relied on the Nile Rive for their water.
False. The Nubians did not rely on the Nile floods to create fertile soil. The Nubians received rainfall all year long.
The Nubians of karma grew wealthy from farming and mining old. T/F
True
Nubian kings were buried with their treasures, like the Egyptian kings. T/F
True. Like the Egyptian pharaohs, the kings of Kerma were buried with their personal belongings including valuable items, gold, jewelry and pottery
Egyptian culture had no influence on the Nubians, who had their own religion, system or writing and toll-making skills.
False. The kingdoms of Nubia and Kush were influenced by Egyptian culture and they continued many Egyptian traditions.
How and why did Nubians and Egyptians interact?
The Nubians of Kerma grew deathly. Their kingdom developed a close relationship with Egypt in the north. It made Kerma an important trade link between Egypt and the tropical areas of Southern Africa. Egyptians got cattle, gold, incense, ivory, giraffes, leopards and enslaved people. They also hired Nubians to serve in their armies because of the skills in warfare. Karma's artisans made fine pottery, jewelry and metal goods.
Why was the city of Meroe important to the Kushites?
When the Kush rulers moved to Meroe it was near on the the Nile's cataracts. large deposits of iron and trees where nearby and were used to fuel furnaces for making iron. As a result, Meroe became a major center for iron production and a busy trading city.
Identify one characteristic that made the city of Meroe different from egyptian cities.
Meroe contained iron furnaces.
How did Nubia and Egypt influence each other?
Nubia adopted many of Egypt's beliefs and culture.
Nubians adapted Egyptian hieroglyphics to fit their own language and created an alphabet.
Nubians worshipped Egyptian gods along with their own deities. They learned to sue cooper and bronze to make tools.
How did the use of iron affect Kush?
Kush ruled Egypt for 60 years. Then the Assyrians invaded Egypt. The Assyrians had iron weapons and defeated the Kushites who had only weaker bronze weapons. The Kushites fled Egypt.
acquire
to get possession of something
authority
the power to give orders or make decisions
challenge
to invite the start of a fight, contest, or competition
crucial
important or significant
distribute
to divide into shares and deliver to different people
isolate
to separate from others
manual
involving physical effort
rely
to depend on someone or something
reside
to have a home in a particular place
role
the part an individual fulfills in society
unify
to unite or bring together in one unit
unique
one of a kind; different from all others
Nile River Floods
gentle and predictable
What features of the geography of the Nile valley influenced the way the people lived?
(1) flooding made farming successful
(2) river provided transportation
(3) river unified 1 culture and 1 religion
(4) desserts to the west and east kept our invaders
(5) Nile delta kept out invaders
(6) Mediterranean and Red Sea opened up trade