APES

AP TEST REVIEW
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Terms in this set (...)

abiotic
pertaining to factors or things that are separate and independent from living
abyssal zone
the deepest region of the ocean. this zone is marked by extremely cold temperatures and very low levels of DO - but very high levels of nutrients because of the he decaying matter that falls from zones above.
acid
compound that releases hydrogen when dissolved in water.
active volcano
currently erupting or has erupted within recorded memory.
aggregate
crowded or massed into a dense cluster
A layer
soil horizon below "O"; composed of weathered rock with some organic material. topsoil.
alkaline
a basic substance; chemically, a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water, a measure of the base content.
aquifer
an underground layer of porous rock, sand, or other materials that allows the movement of water between layers of nonporous rock or clay. frequently tapped for wells
arable
land fit to be cultivated
asthenosphere
the part of the mantle that lies below the lithosphere
atmosphere
gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body; esp the one surrounding earth which is retained by gravity
barrier island
a long, relatively narrow island running parallel to the mainland, built up by the action of waves and currents and serving to protect the coast from erosion by surf and tidal surges
bathyal zone
steep descent of the seabed from the continental shelf to the abyssal zone
benthic zone
deepest layer in a body of h20; characterized by very low temp and DO levels.
biological weathering
any weathering that's caused by the activities of living organisms
biotic
living or derived from living things
B layer
a soil horizon; B receives the minerals and organic materials that are leached out of the E horizon.
chemical weathering
result of chemical interaction with the bedrock that is typical of the action of both water and atmospheric gas
C layer
horizon C is made up of larger pieces of rock hat have not undergone much weathering.
clay
soil made up of particles less than .002 mm in diameter
conduction
transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself
convection
the vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling
convection currents
ocean currents caused by the vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling
convergent boundary
a plate boundary that has plates coming together
coral reef
an erosion-resistant marine ridge or mound consisting chiefly of compacted coral together with algal material and biochemically deposited magnesium and calcium carbonates.
Coriolis Effect
observed effect of the Coriolis force, especially the deflection of an object moving above the earth, rightward in the nh, leftward in the s.
crop rotation
practice of alternating crops grown on a piece of land. corn - legumes - corn
delta
usually triangular alluvial deposit at the mouth of a river
divergent boundary
causes upwelling of magma from the mantle to cool and form new crust
doldrums
near equator - calms, light winds, squalls
dormant volcanoes
not been known to erupt
drip irrigation
method of supplying irrigation water through tubes that literally drip water at base of each plant. best.
earthquake.
most often caused at transform boundaries.
E layer
lies below the A layer. E stands for eluviations and this later is primarily composed of mineral material.
epiliminion
uppermost / most oxygenated layer of a fresh body of water
erosion
process of soil particles being carried away by wind or water. move smaller particles first and thus degrades soil to a coarser, sandier, stonier texture.
estuary
part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides
euphotic zone
layer or depth of water through which enough light to support photosynthesis exists
fault
plate boundary
front
air mass boundary
Greenhouse Effect
phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmospheric gases such as CO2, H2O, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through, but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface.
Green Revolution
development and introduction of new varieties of (mainly) wheat and rice that has increased yields per acre dramatically in countries since the 60s
Hadley Cell
system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns
headwaters
source from which river water rises
horizon
layer of soil
horizontal airflow
when a warm air mass rises and cool air ruses in to take its place
Horse Latitudes
30 to 35 degrees N & S, having high barometric pressure, calms, and light, changeable winds.
humus
dark crumbly nutrient rich material results from decomp organic matter.
hurricane
severe tropical cyclone originating in the equatorial regions of the Atlantic, carib, or eastern regions of pacific traveling N, NW, or NE from its point of origin.
hypolimnion
layer of water in a thermally stratified lake that lies below the thermocline and is noncirculating. cold
inner core
molten center of earth
insolation
rate of delivery of solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface
interbasin transfer
a system by which eater is transported very long distances from its source through aqueducts or pipelines
ionosphere
region of earth's atmosphere where ionization caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves.70km to 400km above the surface
jet stream
a high-speed, meandering wind current, generally moving from a westerly direction at speeds often exceeding 400km per hour at altitudes of 15 to 25 km
land degradation
when soil becomes water-logged and then dries out. salt forms layer on surface
LA NINA
a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of s america, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting pacific and other weather patterns
limnetic zone
surface of open water; region that extends to the depth that sunlight can penetrate. short lived and photosynthesizing organism
littoral
very shallow h2o at shoreline. receives abundant sunlight. ends where rooted plants stop growing.
lithosphere
outer part of earth, crust + upper mantle. 100km/62mi thick
loamy
soil that is mixture of clay sand silt organic matter
mantle
later between crust and core
mesosphere
atmosphere 30-80km/20-50mi above earth's surface, characterized by temperatures that decrease from 10c to -90c with increasing altitude
meteorologist
scientists who report and forecast weather conditions
monoculture
cultivation of a single crop
monsoon
wind system that influences large climate regions and reverses direction seasonally
O layer
uppermost horizon - humus, decomp organic matter
physical / mechanical weathering
breaks rock down into smaller pieces without changing the chemistry of the rocks/ typically wind and water
plate boundaries
edges of tectonic plates
plow pan
pan created by plowing at the depth of tillage, largely the result of the common practice of dropping tractor wheels of one side of the tractor into the dead furrow for steering while preforming the plowing operation
polar easterly
when winds between 60 and poles (N: blow n& e) (S: blow S & e)
prior appropriation
when water rights are given to those who have historically used water in a certain area
profundal zone
in freshwater, too deep from sun/photosynth orgs don't live here
rain shadow
low rainfall region that exists on the leeward/downwind side of a mountain range. result of mntn range causing precip on windward side
red tide
bloom of dinoflgellates hat causes reddish discoloration of coastal ocean water. toxins kill fish and contaminate shellfish
R horizon
bedrock
riparian rights
the right of one who owns the land
salinization
process in which soil becomes saltier and saltier until finally the salt prevents the growth of plants. salinization is caused by irrigation bc salts brought in with the water remain in the soil as water evaporates
sand
coarsest soil - .05-2mm in diameter
silt
soil w paricles .002-.05mm
Southern Oscillation
atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of el nino and cooling of la nina
subduction
oceanic slides under continental
subduction zone
site at which an oceanic is sliding under continental
thermocline
later in a large body of water that sharply separates regions differing in temperature so that the temp gradient is abrupt
thermosphere
outermost shell of the amosphere bw mesos and space where temperatures increase steadily with altitude
topsoil
A layer - plant growth
trade winds
more or less constant winds blowing in horiz direction over the earth's surface as part of Hadley cells
transform boundary
slide sideways
tropical storm
cyclonic storm having winds ranging approx 48 to 121 km per hour
troposphere
lowest region of atmosphere - decreasing temp with increasing alt
tropopause
bw trop and strat verying in alt from 8km at poles to 18 km at equator
upwelling
process in which cold/nutrient rich waters from ocean depths rise to surface
watershed
region draining into a river, river system, or other body of water
water-scarce
countries that have a renewable annual water supply of less than 1000 m3 per person
water-stressed
renewable annual water supple of about 1000-2000 m3 per person
weather
day to day variation in temp, air pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation mediated by atmosphere
weathering
gradual breakdown of rock into smaller and smaller particles, caused by natural chem/phys/biolog factores
westerly
moving air mass tht results from air being deflected south and west in n hemis and n and w in s hemis near the equaor
wetlands
lowland area, such as marsh or swamp, that is saturated with moisture, esp when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife