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History 10 MIDTERM 1 at UCR with CHRISSANTHOS
Midterm 1 Listed Term Words and Definitions for History 10 Class at University of California Riverside.
Terms in this set (102)
land "between the rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates), first created by the Sumerians; there existed a number of independent city states (many of them were walled) ex. Ur, Eriku, Uruk. Their livelihood was based primarily on agriculture, but commerce and industry were also important.To the people of Mesopotamia, the gods were living realities who affected all aspects of life. This helps explain the importance of the priestly class and the reason that even the kings took great care to dedicate offerings and monuments to the gods. With its nearly three thousand gods and goddesses animating all aspects of the universe, Mesopotamian religion was a form of polytheism. Ziggurats were prominent buildings in city-states that were dedicated to the gods/goddesses of the city-state.
Sumerians (3000 BCE)
First creators of Mesopotamian civilization with walled cities, stepped towers called ziggurats and mud bricks in this theocratic society. They held a divine kingship and they believed gods ruled the cities, nomadic tribe. First civilization, developed first writing system, known as cuneiform, to keep records, communicate ideas, and maintain knowledge.
"the Great King" leader of Akkadians (Semitic people due to the language they spoke) , overran the Sumerian city-states and created a dynamic empire (empire fell in 2100 BCE) that included all of Mesopotamia and westwards lands toward the Mediterranean. His power was based on military strength. The empire fell because neighboring hill people attacked and led to a return of separate city-states and conflicts. King of Akkad, first multi-ethnic empire.
Hammurabi(18th century BCE)
"the Sun of Babylon"; (a man of war as well as a man of peace) fierce leader who was very concerned with state affairs, was well known for his literature called the Code of Hammurabi: 282 laws built on patriarchal systems, many of the codes had to do with marriage and family. His code revealed a society with a system of strict justice, "the Golden Rule", an eye for an eye; this was also the first time laws had been placed in written form and had significant impact on the justice system. His empire fell to new invaders after his death as his successors were weak kings. During his reign, Hammurabi built temples, defensive walls, and irrigation canals as well as encouraging trade which brought an economic revival. Best remembered for his law code→ a collection of 282 laws. The Code of Hammurabi is a system of strict justice. Principle of "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth"
Nile River -
The life source of ancient Egypt: irrigation, fishing, trading, transportation. The flooding was seen as life-enhancing, not life-threatening like the Mesopotamian Rivers. This is the longest river in the world. (upper and lower Egypt was determined by this river) the miracle of this river. was its annual flooding. The black land is the fertile soil from the river. The red land is the rest of the infertile desert. The Nile River connected the upper and lower Egypt areas physically in making transportation and communication easier.
Menes (3100 BCE)
King who united upper and lower Egypt; ran first Egyptian royal dynasty. The Egyptian kings were also known as Pharaohs that united the empires politically. Wore a special red and white crown to symbolize the unity of the two kingdoms. Also known as Narmer, a Pharaoh who unified the north and south.
Pharaohs were given divine right over kingdoms and were considered gods amongst men acting as part of a universal structure. A breakdown in the royal power would indicate that the citizens were offending divinity and weakening the universal structure.
Egyptian Pharaoh that built the largest and most astounding pyramids of Egypt (the Great pyramid of Giza)
Located in the northern part of modern day Sudan; Egyptians obtained goods (gold, ivory, ebony, skins, and frankincense). Became an Egyptian tributary. After the fall of the Egyptian empire, they became the free kingdom of Kush (Nubia became the independent state of Kush).
governor of southern upper Egypt who journeyed extensively throughout Nubia. His tomb engravings can tell us about Egyptian society.
group of mixed Semitic-asiatics who immigrated into Egypt's delta region. Invaded Egypt during the reign of the Middle Kingdom from western Asia. The Hyksos introduced the use of bronze, horse and chariot, the compound bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques into Egypt. A nomadic tribe who conquered Egypt for 100 years. They were able to conquer because they had superior military technology (war chariot).
Hatshepsut -- (16th century BCE)
first female pharaoh. As pharaoh, Hatshepsut extended Egyptian trade and oversaw ambitious building projects, most notably the Temple of Deir el-Bahri, located in western Thebes, where she would be buried. Depicted (at her own orders) as a male in many contemporary images and sculptures (referred to as "His Majesty"). Great builder of temples/monuments. Consolidated Egypt after Hyksos.
Tuthmosis III-(16th century BCE)
Hatshepsut's nephew, pharaoh, big role in expansion of Egypt influence in Africa, built the Egyptian empire. Also known as the "warrior pharaoh". Builds first Egyptian Empire and creates buffer zones in the Near East.
Amenhotep IV-- (14th century BCE)
Introduced monotheism, wanted to change religion, take sun god, Aten, and elevate him to chief deity in the pantheon, renamed himself Akhenaten (servant of Aten in latin), son was Tutunkhamun (returned the government to Thebes and restored the old gods). His preoccupation with religion caused him to ignore foreign affairs and led to the loss of both Syria and Canaan. Egyptians went back to the old gods after he died.
Independent state after disintegration of New Kingdom Egypt. Economy primarily on agriculture and animal husbandry. Major trading state in Africa.
Indo-Europeans-- (3000 BCE)
Refers to people who used a language derived from a single parent tongue. These include: greek, latin, russian, persian; nomadic; hittites; Languages include Sanskrit, Persian, and most major European languages. Cultural linguistic group. Nomadic tribe from Southern Russia -- split up and colonized Europe.
Hittites (1600 BC)-
Indo-Europeans that created their own empire in Western Asia and even threatened the power of the Egyptians. The Hittites were the first Indo-European people to make use of iron, enabling them to construct weapons that were stronger and cheaper to make because of the widespread availability of iron ore. Located in Anatolia (modern Turkey). They demonstrate an interesting ability to assimilate other cultures into their own.
Assyrian Empire (2500 BC - 605 BC)
Semitic-speaking people who used iron weapons to establish an empire. Developed an efficient system of communications (staging posts that used relays of horses to deliver messages). Assyrians developed effective military leaders and army was well organized and disciplined. Also used terror as war fighting strategy (lay waste to everything) and committed atrocities to their captives. Agriculture and trade was the economy. Subject people like Babylonians resented Assyrian rule and rebelled. Eventually the empire fell between 2 powers.
New Babylonian Empire (626 BC- 539BC)
After the fall of Assyrian Empire, the Chaldeans made Babylonia the leading state in western Asia. King Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt Babylonia as the center of his empire, which was short lived due to the take over by Persia (Cyrus the Great).
Greeks encountered Phoenicians during Archaic Age; came from Phoenicia-developed system of writing, alphabet; developed pictograph systems; Greeks borrowed system and called it the Greek alphabet and passed on and on...developed alphabet we have today.
First civilization to begin in Greece 2000 BC; Not greeks-did not speak greek language, culture, or share religion; centered on biggest greek island: Crete; based prosperity and survival on trade.
CENTER AT KNOSSUS. DIsappearance most likely from Mycenaeans
replaced Minoans around 1400 bc; First greeks(spoke greek, shared greek culture and religion); arrived in greece in 1600 bc while Minoans were still around; Minoans taught Myceneans arts of civilization(art, trade, read, write); Not a unified Mycenae state, but divided into several independent city states with Mycenae as its strongest. Destroyed from Barbarian tribes from North (1100 BC). PYLOS- place where records survived
Created and wrote the first great epic poems of Greece, the Illiad (about Trojan War, people and soceity and how the wrath of Achilles led to disaster)and the Odyssey (epic romance about journeys of Odysseus from fall of Troy); IMPORTANCE: 1. works were std texts of education in Greece. 2. works depicted Dark Age: society based on agriculture valuing aristocratic values of courage and honor (ARETE) 3. Gave greeks universal model of heroism, honor, and nobility. 4.
Dark Age-- (1100-800 BCE)
After collapse of Mycenaeans; fall of Mycenaeans; population plummets, 95% of people are gone; Mycenae architecture stops and forget how to read and write; no one settled there after; Greeks left mainland, esp to Ionia. Pylos shows evidence of Dark Age
New type of soldier; armed with iron armor and weapons-greek they had to supply themselves; iron much cheaper than bronze; changes greek warfare; development of Hoplite leads to thousands in army who want and get political power; leads to new Greek unique city state, Polis. Phalanx is the rectangular formation hoplites assemble in for war. You had to be wealthy to be a hoplite when they had to use bronze armor and bronze weapons
1000 Polis' in Greek world and were 1000 separate autonomous political units; all decisions made by an assembly of citizens (make proposals and had right to vote in assembly if you were a citizen of a polis with political rights); first example of direct democracy at Pynx hill. Voting takes place in Athens; had to be male; traced ancestry back to athenian parents only; TWO types: oligarchy and democracy
Most famous oligarchy; Lycurgus reforms made Sparta into a military state by implementing separate living barracks for men (soldiers) ; slaves were helots(Messenians and Laconians); two kings; highly self-discipline; women respected for bearing children. Isolated polis.
Helots- In Sparta
Messenians and laconians reduced to helots (capture), or serfdom and worked for Sparta,
type of polis; ruled by few; most greek polis' were oligarchy; Sparta; only hoplites exercised political power; women, aliens, slaves, and poor males had no political power; 10% of populations had political rights
most famous democracy under democratic rule; a polis; by 700 b.c., Athens had established a unified polis on the peninsula of Attica. GOVT: land and controlled political life controlled by council of nobles, assisted by a board of nine archons. RULERS TIMELINE: Solon [appointed to fix Athen's problems of farmers sold into slavery; Pisistratus- tyrant after Solon's failure to redistribute land to poor; Cleisthenes: Created "council of five hundred" which passed laws regarding foreign, financial and business affairs after free and open debate. ; Themistocles: introduced new military policy (the navy) in battle against persians
chosen by aristocrats, reform-minded, given full power to make changes becomes sole archon; canceled land debts, outlawed new loans based on humans as collateral and freed people who had fallen into slavery because of debt. Reforms did not solve Athen's problems. Did not institute land redistribution which was main problem; led to tyranny. Credited for having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.
Rule by many; Athens; very rare; all male citizens regardless of wealth were allowed to participate politically. Still a connection between military service and political power; only 25% had political rights
Cyrus II(559-530 BCE)
Persian king responsible for vast area of Persia, when he took over the Persians controlled a tiny area, known as the Persian gulf; Great leadership, very good and very large army, effective imperial administration, and religion allowed for great success of vast amount of conquered land. Believed it was "holy warfare".
Persian King during Ionian Revolt (Ionian Greeks rise up in revolt against Persia, Athens are only polis to help;Ionians crushed by Persia). Used fear to control empire of conquered people; wants to make example out of those who revolt, decides to punish Athens in Battle of Marathon - Fails; Athenian victory
Persian War-(492-449 BCE)
Series of War between the Persians (led by Xerxes) and the Greeks, consisted of three main battles (in chronological order)
i. Xerxes invasion
Battle of Marathon
Darius I vs Ionian cities+Athens; Athenians defeat Persians (7000 dead PA vs. 192 Athenians dead); REASONSl: free men fighting against slaves, homefield advantage, hoplite armor, Persian soldiers were subjects forced to fight; Themistocles was a famous general in Battle of Marathon.
Darius dies 486 BC during 10 year plan to come back and invade Greece; Xerxes succeeds Darius, Xerxes not a great military leader like his father, made several mistakes that helps the Greek cause.
Was an Athenian politician. General in the Battle of Marathon.
Battle of Thermopylae
Spartans vs Xerex with Xerxes win. Reason: despite hoplite armor, a traitor gave Persians adv by informing them of a mountain passage to outflank Greek force. Spartans loose to last man.
Battle of Salamis-
Following shortly after Thermopylae; Xerxes vs Athenian trimeme; Greeks win. REASONS: Trimemes may have been slower than Persian ships, but amount of space to move around was limited. Greeks at adv with slower, but stronger ships
Battle of Platea-- (479 BC)
70,000 Persians vs 40,000 hoplite. Last big battle of the war. Greeks were victorious REASONS: homefield advantage, hoplite armor, most of soldiers weren't even Persian; IMPORT: Persia never attacked the Greeks again. Greece will now develop a more independent civilization. The Golden/Classical Age of Greece = Architecture, Art, Mathematics, Science, Literature.
Delian League/Athenian Empire (478 BC)
Athenians took over the leadership of the Greek world by forming a defensive alliance against the Persians called the Delian League. Under the leadership of the Athenians, the Delian League pursued the attack against the Persian Empire. By controlling the Delian League, Athens had created an empire.
Continued to exist even after Persian threat eliminated, but Athenians forced others to remain to pay tribute
funds used to rebuild Athens under Age of Pericles
Tragedy writer from Salamis.;questioned traditional moral and religious values
Aristophanes-- (446-386 BCE)
comic playwright of Ancient Athens who created Lysistrata
Socrates-- (469-399 BCE)
Athenian philosopher who left no writings, but we know about him from his pupils. Socrates was a stonemason whose true love was philosophy, he taught a number of pupils, although not for pay, because he believed that the goal of education was solely to improve the individual. Founded Socratic Method: a ? and answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason
Plato-- (429-347 BCE)
One of Socrates' disciples, considered by many the greatest philosopher of Western civilization, Plato wrote a great deal. He was fascinated with the question of reality
Author of The Republic
Est. the Academy School
He was one of the pupils who studied at Plato's school in Athens. Aristotle did not accept Plato's theory of ideal Forms. Instead he believed that by examining individual objects, we can perceive their form and arrive at universal principles; but these principles are a part of things themselves and do not exist as a separate higher world of reality beyond material things
Pericles-- (495-429 BCE)
General of Athens during the Persian and Peloponnesian wars;
Age of Pericles marked the time period where height of Athenian power and brilliance of civilzation
Assembly of 6k men voted democratically:
Magistrates- 1 yr term public affairs
Strategoi- 10 general guided affairs
Money used from Delian League to rebuild after Persian Wars
introduced STATE PAY and JURY DUTY
Peloponnesian War-- (431-404 BCE)
27 YR war between Athenians and the Peloponnesian League which was led by the Spartans. Athens strategy of defense; however, by the 2nd yr of war, a plague killed 1/3 of the pop. pericles died the following yr. END came on Aegospotami on Hellespont. Political outcome: Athens was reduced to a weak city-state while Sparta became the leading power. Led to next 10 yrs of petty wars; destroyed cooperation
finest example of Greek temple built in Classical Age
dedicated to Athena, glory of city-state, inhabitants and principles of Classical architecture of calmness, clarity and avoidance of superfluous detail.
Macedonians were thought of a little better than barbarians. They were divided and weak. They had Heroic monarchy where the king was in the front lines in battle. (king did not wear anything to distinguish him from his people, no power of life or death over his people). No automatic succession to the throne causing many civil wars after each king died. The king rarely died of natural causes, usually assassinated by his family members. Macedonia was literally divided into 2 parts, lower macedonia and upper macedonia (upper macedonia was divided into 7 kingdoms each with its own royal family). Blessed with many natural resources, horses, and they had a huge population.(potentially the largest cavalry) But always had invaders from the north and south.
followed by early Macedonians; reasons for weakness: since kings were expected to lead in battles, they often died with no succession to throne.
Contrasts with absolute monarchy of persia where king treated as a god
Philip II-- (359-336 BC)
King of Macedonia on behalf of Amyntas (he was too young to rule). He introduces a new weapon for the hoplite soldiers→ 18 ft. long spears called sarissas. He had the biggest and best cavalry in Greece called the Companion Cavalry. His 7th wife is Cleopatra→ son named Caranus. Also has an older son Alexander the Great (from a different wife).
Reformed military an reunited Greece after conquering Greeks in Battle of Chaeronea
Death: body guard by the name of Pausanias stabs him to death
Battle of Chaeronea (338BC)
hilip II + Macedonian army vs. Greek polis led by Athens. Greek polis saw that Philip II was a big threat to their independence. Polis' join together to stop him. Phillips infantry and cavalry was bigger and better. Philip and the Macedonians win the battle. Phillip has now conquered all of Greece, and Greece is unified. He demanded two things: Greeks stop fighting amongst each other and each polis must contribute hoplites for his army. He wants to lead a unified greek army in a great war of revenge against Persia.
son of Philip II. Worried he might not become king because his birth mother was not full Macedonian, and because of the birth of Caranus (Cleopatra and Phillip's baby). Philip II is killed by Pausania (Philip's bodyguard) as he meets with representatives of his empire. (might be a murder between Pausania + Alexander) Alexander removes any potential threat to the throne. So he kills Caranus and Cleopatra. At age 20, he was the king of Macedonia. Also known as Alexander the Great. The reason he decides to invade the Persian empire is because he hopes to carry on his father's legacy. Never lost any battles. Dies of weakened wounds and perhaps alcohol poisioning
Claimed to be descendant from heracles
Imitated Achilles, the warrior hero in the Iliad
Led in autocratic monarchy
IMPORTANCE: left cultural legacy where Greek la, art, arch, and lit spread through Middle East; clash and fusion of different cultures; brought about Hellenistic Age
Battle of Granicus River
Alexander vs Persians
; Alexander wins
Pursues battle in name of father's wishes
This is the first battle bw Alex. and Persians
REASONS for win: satraps led Persians, who underestimated their enemy
Battle of Issus (333BC)
Second major battle after Battle of Granicus River. Darius III vs Alexander. Alex wins. REASONS: Greeks still had hoplite armor, Persians didn't; Greeks have the long spear that was created by Philip II when he was in charge; Persian soldiers were slaves being forced to fight; narrow fighting space forced Persians to confront sarissas. Outcome of battle: Persians flee east leaving the west open for Alexander,Darius leaves large amount of money (no more money problems),Darius leaves behind mother, wife, daughter, mistress, etc (valuable hostages)
Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)
Alexander's last battle with Persia. Alexander's army moves to the right. Darius III sees Alexander doing his formation so he does the same. So he moves left to follow Alexander. However, as Darius' III army moves, there are huge gaps in between the Persian line. Alexander cuts into the gaps. Darius III sees him getting close and he flees. Darius was assassinated by his officers. At age 25, Alexander is now the king of Persia.
Persian King who fought against Alexander the Great and fled two battles before he was murdered by his own officers due to his inability to win a battle against Greece.
Battle of Hydaspes River
Alexander vs India (led by Porus); Alex wins
This is the last campaign before Alex's men mutinied.
Porus was still allowed to reign over his subjects and Alex and him maintained some level of a friendship afterwards
When Alexander died at 32 of illness (W&S pg 173), he didn't have any heirs to the throne. The Epigoni Wars were wars between Alexander's successors/generals. A battle that was fought for 40 years. The empire was then divided into 3 (main) Hellenistic empires.
General Seleucus- the Seleucid dynasty of Syria maintained relations with Mauryan Empire. Megashenes is best known for the report on the people of Indian who remained one of the West's best sources on info until Middle Ages.
Antigonid dynasty (Macedonia and Greece)
Antigonus Gonatus- grandson of Alexander's general
Attalus- Attalid dynasty as king of Pergamum
founder of Alba Longa. He led the Trojan survivors out of Troy into the center of Italy to build a nation according to a god's message. Son of Aphrodite.
Son of Mars, God of War, and Rhea. He and his twin brother fulfills the prophecy of overthrowing Amulius. Romulus later kills his twin brother, Remus, while in the process of building a wall for his city. Romulus establishes Rome.
people who lived North of Rome in Etruna;
ruled Rome for about 100 yrs
Rome adopted much of their culture and architecture from them
A Roman polis in ways that it's like a Greek polis: (1) citizenship, (2) hoplite army, and like Sparta 3. narrow and controlled oligarchy where controlled by wealthy few
Ran Rome. Had all the power. members of the senate were elected for life. mainly patricians.Always wanted to go to war.
co-presidents of the Roman state. (2 consuls)
Tribal Assembly is more democratic and was created to protect the interests of the people since they were to pass all laws, make major decisions, and approved Rome going to war.
Passed all laws and major decisions. They approved Rome into going to war. Tribunes did not do anything without the consent of the senate. This wont change until Gracchus gets elected.
Ruler with complete and absolute control of their respective territory/people/empire.
Patricians were wealthy people that control most of rome political power. Plebians were everyone else. poor farmers and people without money or political power. struggled for equal rights
roman naming convention. (2 or 3 naming system)the more, names, the richer. the women's name took the feminine form of the father's second name
allies of Rome whose lands surround Rome. The people living in these land have a chance to fight for their citizenship and gain military glory
Had to contribute soldiers to Roman army of 500,000 men.
The conquered were treated as equals, leading to Roman success. All external threats were exterminated.
neighboring empire rome saw as threat and engaged in punic wars with rome resulting in destruction of carthage and increased sized and influence of roman empire
Punic Wars- - (264-146 BCE)
Set of three wars between Rome and Carthage; main cause of the war was the conflict of interest between the two groups. Rome conquered Carthage's empire and became the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean.
large estates that landed aristocrats (in Rome, second century) acquired by taking over state owned land by buying out small peasant owners. These used slave labor. The rise of latifundia caused the decline of small citizen farmers who were available for military service and caused them to move to cities, such as Rome, and make up a class of landless poor.
T. Sempronius Gracchus
First politician in the new Roman Empire (after end of Roman Republic due to Roman Revolution) to be assassinated by Senate. Made it well known that the senate is not the only one that can pass laws. Went to the Tribal Assembly to pass new laws that the Senate refused to pass. He wanted to create new laws that would help people out of poverty and help expand the army. This was never done before. The Senate was always consulted and referred to. As the year continues he passes laws in the tribal assembly. The Senators grow discontent, even though the actions taken are still legal.
What did the Senate quarrel over in the Roman Empire?
1.Election to office: one needed to acquire power and wealth to be a candidate and many wanted to be elected.
2.Policy: varying ideas of how to run Rome in regards to laws, money, how wars should be fought etc.
3. Military commander: military power translated to senate power
C. Marius-- (107-100 BCE)
elected consul Led a battle in Africa - had to pay for his army due to lack of soldiers ( a problem Gracchus didn't solve due to his murder)- ended up defeating North Africa. Also defeated German barbarians. Asks the Senate if he can give land to these poor soldiers that served in his army; Senate says no but Marius goes straight to the Tribune (just like Gracchus). Senate could not kill Marius like they did Gracchus because Marius had a whole army supporting him. Soldiers from then on usually more loyal to the general than to the state.
Spartacus-- (111-71 BCE)
Thracian gladiator that led in the Third Servile War - a slave rebellion against Roman Republic (Julius Ceasar, Pompey Magnus and Marcus L. Crassus)
Political alliance b/n Pompey, Crassus & Caesar (not formal/legal). Pompey (most popular general) and Crassus (wealthiest man in Rome) had political power (wealthy individuals) and Julius Ceasar had military power. This combination proved to be successful until Julia, Julius Caesar's daughter and the wife of his alliance Pompey, died. Usually Roman elite divorced often after alliances broke, but Julia and Pompey were actually in love. Final end when Crassus dies
M. Licinius Crassus
Wealthiest man in all of Roman history. Served as consul with Pompey Magnus. Fought against Spartacus and slave rebellion. He helped Julius Caesar climb the political ladder of rome. (He created an alliance between Julius Caesar, poded him money in his campaigns to get elected), KILLED when he seeks military glory by attacking East in the empire of Parthea. His head is chopped off and used in a play and his death causes a split in the alliance between Pompay and Caesar.
Cn. Pompeius Magnus
one of the 2 consuls during L. Crassus time. Pompey also fought against Spartacus in slave rebellion. Was a part of the first triumvirate.
Ptolemy XIII hires agents to assassinate Pompey. He shows Caesar the head of Pompey's slaughtered head thinking he'd be pleased, but Caesar wasn't.
C. Julius Caesar
Elected consul through the power and wealth of Crassus and Pompey. GOAL: Military glory. Invaded Gaul, and through his military campaigns became extremely popular and wealthy. Developed into a remarkable military general. Had a very large & experienced army, would ultimately win a Civil War between himself and Pompey/Senate. In 44 BC, declared himself dictator for life. Loved by the people & his army, hated by the Senate
Gallic War-- (58-50 BCE)
A series of military campaigns waged by Julius Caesar against Gallic tribes; Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic; the wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the sole ruler of the Rome.
Daughter of Julius Caesar. Helped relationship between Caesar and Pompey. When she died during childbirth, it was the first blow to the alliance (1st Triumvirate)
2nd Civil War
Fearing that J. Caesar had become too powerful, Pompey & the Senate aimed to take him down, launching a series of battles between the two powers. Ultimately, Julius Caesar wins in 45 BC & declared himself dictator.
Battle of Pharsalus-- (48 BCE)
The decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War; Caesar vs. Pompey; Caesar wins
Sister to Ptolemy XIII, took the throne at 19 after his death and soon had a child by Caesar named Caesarian. Cleopatra kills her brother in order to ensure that Caesarian would inherit the Egyptian kingdom. Lives with Caesar in Rome awhile until he is killed and then returns to Egypt. Antonius later falls in love with her, divorces his Roman wife (Octavius's sister), marries Cleopatra, and she later gives birth to twins.
Ptolemy XV (44-30 BCE)
Last king in the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt; only ruled for 11 days before being assassinated by Octavian's men. Cleopatra's son with Caesar
M. Junius Brutus(58-42 BCE)
Politician of the late Roman Republic; one of the leaders behind the assassination of Julius Caesar.
C. Cassius Longinus-
Conspired with J. Brutus to- assassinate J. Caesar. Once they had killed him, Brutus/Cassius & the rest of the assassins fled East. Committed suicide after being beaten by Octavius and Antonius.
M. Antonius -- (43-33 BCE)
Roman politician and general; critical in turning the Roman Republic form an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire; formed the Second Triumvirate; had an affair with Cleopatra; was defeated by Octavian at the naval battle of Actium; committed suicide.
C. Octavius -- (27 BC-14 AD)
lso known as Augustus. The founder of the Roman Empire and it's first Emperor; Julius Caesar's adopted son and heir; founder of the Second Triumvirate; created a constitutional framework known as the Principate; brought on an era of "Pax Romana" or Roman Peace; reformed taxation, developed networks of roads, established an army and the Praetorian Guard and police and fire-fighting services, and rebuilt much of the city.
M. Tullius Cicero-
Widely considered to be Rome's greatest orator. Wrote "On the Laws", a dialogue about natural law(a primary source in our readings)
M. Aemilius Lepidus-
one of the 2nd triumvirate who holds the $$$
("triumvirate" =alliance)Gaius Octavius Caesar, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Battle of Philippi-- (42 BC)
Armies of Brutus and Cassius vs. the armies of Antonius and Octavius. Brutus and Cassius had controlled the east before this battle. After this, Antonius and Octavius now controlled the whole empire (East given to Antonius, West given to Octavius).
Battle of Actium-- (31 BCE)
Decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic -- Octavius vs. Marcus Antonius in naval warfare. This battle lead to octavius/augustus to consolidate power in Rome. Here, Octavius claims to wage war on Cleopatra in hopes of forcing Antonius into fighting(which worked). Octavius' navy destroys Cleopatra and Antonius' navy. The Republic of Rome becomes an empire and Octavius becomes Rome's first emperor. Marks the end of the last of the Hellenistic Empires, end of the Roman Republic, and beginning of Roman monarchy.
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