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what happens to FSV in the intestrinal entrocyte

incorporated into chylomicrons

FSV enter circulation

in chylomicrons bound to specific proteins

what organ primarily takes up FSV

the liver

FSV arrive to the liver as

chylomicrom remnints or attached to lipoproteins

what protein complexes with retinol in the liver and is a part of the complex that moves retinol to extrahepatic tisssues to be utilized

Retinal binding Protein

How does infection affect the concentration of this protein in the plasma

infection decreases circulaiton of albumin and RBP

what are the implications of infection for assessing vitamin A status

infections casues vitamin A to seem insufficient

in developing countries vitamin A deficiency is primary or secondary


what vitamin A is a component of rhodopsin


what vitamin A is a ligand of RXR

9-cis-retinoic acid

what vitamin A is in high cncentrations in macular pigment


what vitamin A is prefered for abs by entrocyte and ciculates in blood


what are the 4 physiological roles of vitamin A

cell proliferation (gene)
Formation of rhodopsin (signal)
cell differentiation (gene)
antioxidant power

what is the UL for vitamin A for pregnant women based on

teratogenic effects

what foods are high in leutein

kale and other greens

tomatoes are high in this carotenoid


which retinoid receptos is the "master regulator"


Vitamin D status is measured with

25 (OH) cholecalciferol

25 (OH) cholecalciferol is made in

the liver

what D metabolite is the active form of vitamin D

calcitriol ( 1,25 (OH) cholecalciferol)

what D metabolite is synthesized in the kidney

24,25 (OH) cholecalciferol

who is at rick for D deficiency

obese (D stored in adipose)
Breast fed infants (low D in Milk)
Dark Skin (less light abs)
higher latitudes (sun angle)

what hormone senses low serum calcium and increse productino of active vitamin D


what is a non-genomic way vitamin D incease serum calcium

vitamin D opens voltage-gates Ca and Cl channels

genomic means by which D increase serum calcium

Calcitriol induces productino of proteins in costeoblasts

what 4 isomers of alpha tocopherol are included in DRI definition


why does a lack of functional alpha tocopherol transfer protein lead to E deficiency

needed to package tocopherol into VLDL for export

teo mechanisms favor alpha tocopherol to other forms

regeneration of tocopherol via vitamin C
glutathione reductase

what results in Vitamin E deficiency

Cystic FIbrosis

non genetic cause of vitamin E deficiency


unique anti-oxidant properties of E

lipid soluble free radical chain breaking antiooxidant (prevents damage to lipids)

what phase of lipid peroxidation involves vitamin E as scavenger of PUFA radicals


what phase of lipid pexidation if enhanced by metal ions


what compunds reduces tocopheroxyl redicals

ascorbic acid

UL for E is based on the risk of


what biochemical conversion requires K

carboxylationof flutamic acid to Gla

what term is used for K requires proteins that are found when K is deficient


vitamin K requiring proteins synthesized outside the liver may be involved in

chroni illnesses such as cardiovascular disease osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease

vitamin K biomarker found in bone


vitamin K biomarker essential for blood clotting


how do high K intake overcome therapeutic effects of coumadin

the body regenerates used vitamin K, coumadin stops regeneration. if intake of K is sufficient the drug is negated.

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