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The collecting ducts

A and B are correct.

Components of the urinary system include

All of these are correct.

The rate of urinary excretion of any solute is equal to

its rate of glomerular filtration, plus its rate of secretion, minus its rate of reabsorption.

Which of the following does not excrete H ions?

A and B

As tubular fluid flows up the ascending loop of Henle,

its concentration decreases.

Which of the following is true of nephrons?

They are the functional units of the kidneys.

Place the following structures in the order in which urine would normally pass through them.
1. renal sinus
2. papillary duct
3. renal pelvis
4. major calyx
5. minor calyx

2, 5, 4, 3 but never 1

Why does the osmolarity of tubular fluid decrease as it passes through the ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct?

The LOH and DCT reabsorb solutes and dilute the fluid entering the collecting ducts.

Each of the following is correct about glomerular filtration rate (GFR)EXCEPT:

GFR increases dramatically when the GBHP drops below 45 mmHg.

Which of the following is correct?

A and B are correct.

Which of the following is a likely consequence if patient suffering from renal damage cannot release sufficient quantities of renin?

All of these are correct.

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation

normalizes renal blood flow and GFR in response to a change in blood pressure.

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?

storage of urine

The distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

is the major site where parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+.

Normal constituents of urine include all of the following EXCEPT:


The filtration membrane consists of

A, B and C are correct.

The layer of the kidney superficial to the renal pyramids but deep to the renal capsule is the

renal cortex

The urinary bladder

wall contains the detrusor muscle, which consists of three layers of smooth muscle tissue..

Each of the following substances is ordinarily secreted from the blood and tubular cells into tubular fluid EXCEPT:


The kidneys

are retroperitoneal and are attached to the posterior abdominal wall.

A decrease in osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid causes

A and B

A very busy nurse working at the end of his third 12 hour shift in a row made two bad mistakes with the same patient. First, he forgot to double-check the label on I.V. solution he was hanging to make sure it matched the order for the patient. Then he forgot to check the setting on the I.V. pump. The patient received a liter of hypertonic fluid in less than 15 minutes instead of receiving the same volume of the ordered isotonic fluid in 2 hours. How will the patient's body attempt to compensate for the nurse's mistakes?

The patient will secrete more ANP so that more Na+ and water can be secreted into the urine.

A patient has both systemic lupus erythematosus, which has damaged her liver, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, which has damaged her kidneys. As the diseases have progressed, the edema she experiences has worsened. Why?

A and B are correct.

Place the following in the order that a molecule of water would ordinarily pass through them.
1. collecting duct
2. descending loop of Henle
3. papillary duct
4. glomerulus
5. ascending loop of Henle
6. glomerular capsule
7. distal convoluted tubule
8. proximal convoluted tubule

4, 6, 8, 2, 5, 7, 1, 3

Each of the following can ordinarily cross the filtration membrane EXCEPT:


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