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Terms in this set (125)

-Jefferson won reelection in 1804 after the 12th Amendment to distinguish President and VP on the ballot (to avoid a tie).
-Burr became bitter, and seeking retribution, he joined forces with a small group of radical Federalists called the Essex Juncto, plotting to secceed New England from the Union. After Hamilton refused Burr's offer to govern NY, he decided to himself. Hamilton then leaped to crush his chances and the Federalists in NY did not elect Burr.
-Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, where he shot and killed Hamilton
-President Jefferson called for arrest and tiral for treason during the 1806 Burr Conspiracy to take Mexico from Spain, but Burr was aquitted and freed.
-The Barbary pirates in N. Africa continued to seize ships in the Mediterranean. As Washington and Adams had paid a "protection fee", Jefferson refused as they asked for more. The U.S. Navy fought the pirates - Tripolitan Wars 1801-1805
-Napoleonic War continued in Europe- Berlin Decree 1806 would get American ships to deposit goods caught in the mess. Britain's Order of Council ordered any American ship traveling to mainland Europe to stop in Britain. Milan Decree- Napoleon ordered to seize any ship that first stopped in Britain.
-Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act 1807-09 which prohibited vessels from anchoring at any foreign port. He hoped to cripple Britain and France economically buy the loss of U.S. trade
-His plan was ruinous for the U.S. economy (NE merchants and Southern farmers, and black market goods emerged along with circumventing the embargo with the Canadian border.

-Reconstruction needed the federal government for the assimilation of 4 million freed slaves and readmittance of Confederate States to the Union.
-Pres. Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty (pardon) and Reconstruction for 1863 was to have southern states back under the wing of the federal gov't, having >10% swear an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and Constitution and agreeing to elimination of slavery.
-Wade-Davis Bill 1864 required 50% southern states to take the oath and only Union supporters to approve new state constitutions.
-Freedmen's Bureau 1865 to provide food, shelter, medical to African Americans and Southern whites expiring in 1872
-President Johnson kept Lincoln's 10% plan but was accused of being 'too friendly' with Confederates, pardoning them and allowing them in congress 1865.
-Radical Republicans, fearing return of southern democrats, were forced to work with Johnson in the 1866 election.
-Southern legislatures adopted "Black Codes", restricting actions and freedoms of African Americans- couldn't own land
-'Sharecroppers' (black) would lease land and give most of harvest to landowners as payment. Never enough to pay and feed their families, they remained tied to their plot until the Civil Rights Movement in 1950s and 1960s.
-After the Freedmen's Bureau was restored, Republicans sought to protect African American's rights.
-Civil Rights Act 1866 acted to destroy Black Codes by giving African Americans full citizenship. Congress later ratified the 14th Amendment, protecting rights of all U.S. citizens.

-Frederick Turner's 'Frontier Thesis': As Manifest Destiny was complete, there was no longer any part of the continent that Americans had not touched. He feared the frontier encouraged individualism and democracy, so without "free land", would those end as well?
-Discovery of gold in CA at Sutter's Mill and silver in NV in 18548, thousands rushed to pan the rivers and mine the hills to find fortune.
-San Francisco and Sacramento evolved with the '49ers'.
-CA also had a rush of Chinese immigrants in search of gold, but just found discrimination and poverty. They either worked on the transcontinental railroad, acted as servants, or opened up laundries.
-Mining for gold and silver cause mass fluctuation of value of the metals and panning soon led to deep-core mining that gored mountains and destroyed lakes, rivers, and streams.
-Miles of grassland turned TX, Kansas and Nebraska into cattle ranches and rail lines made transport of beef viable.
-TX Longhorn was the most prized cattle in the U.S> and trails were created for transporting 'long drives' from deep in TX for cowboys and Mexican vaqueros.
-Homesteaders and sheepherders built barbed-wire fences and small farms to enclose herds for breeding and work.
-Homestead Act of 1862 (160 acres for 5+ years) taken by ~500,000 had land that was often unfarmable with lack of rain and hard soil. Those who remained were called 'sodbusters'.
-Life was difficult on the Plains, living in sod houses with drought and plagues of insects. 2/3 had to leave by 1900.

-1865 ~ 400,000 Natives lived freely in the trans-Mississippi west, 1,000s of yrs, largely nomadic on horses to hunt buffalo.
-Souix Indians had aggressive warring tactics in the upper west. The Pawnee asked the federal gov' t for assistance, so boundaries were created throughout the west for each tribe. (1st attempt at reservations failed due to nomadic nature)
-More were becoming aggressive against incoming white settlers from Civil War to 1890.
-In CO, 1864 U.S> militia slaughtered 400 unarmed Natives who had been promised protection.
-Cl. George Custer went to South Dakota in the Sioux reservation proclaiming discovery of gold which flooded with gold seekers and enraged the Sioux. . 2,500 Sioux waited at Little Big Horn River and cut down his men but were soon hunted.
-Plains tribes depended on buffalo for meat, clothing,and fuel but mass killing of buffalo during RR construction made them endangered as buffalo hunt became a sport for coats.
-Helen Hunt's ' A Century of Dishonor (1881) sparked debate over the gov't treatment of native American tribes.
-'Ghost Dance' for rebirth of Natives frightened whites who tried to assimilate them by stripping them of culture an traditions. U.S. navy was called to stop the Sioux from the dance, leading to the battle of Wounded Knee (200 men women and children were slaughtered over the ritual).
-Dawes Severalty Act 1887 attempted to 'civilize' the Natives, stripping tribes of recognition and land rights/ citizernship in 25 yrs 'if they behaved'. Reservations were sold and Indian schools thought them how to behave like whites.

-Resurgence of tobacco as cash crop and outperformed North in textiles due to an abundance of cheap labor and ready cotton supply with railroad network.
-North financed most of the war debt so they got most of the industry that was being revived, so southerners still lived impoverished lives.
-Many small farmers lost their land due to inability to pay debts
-Many remained tied to the land due to crop-liens where farmers for paid for goods on credit to be paid back with next harvest/ poor harvest put them in deeper debt.
-Southern 'redeemers' sought to enact policies separating races into 2 distinct societies as before the war.
-1883 Court decided Congress had no jurisdiction to bar private citizens from practicing discrimination.
-1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson: A mulatto man 7/8 white refused to give up his seat on a 'whites only' railcar in Louisiana and was arrested. He sued claiming his civil rights were violated, but the justices used the 'separate but equal' doctrine to justify
-Jim Crow laws segregating public facilities were immediately adopted by the south. The also tried to disenfranchise black voters through the use of literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses (vote only if Gf did before 1865).
-African Americans not allowed to serve of juries, had harsher penalties for crimes, and subject to public lynching.
-Southern blacks went north only to experience the same
-Booker T. Washington, self-educated former slave advocated education to make Af. Americans more viable in the economy, to 'work within the system' with assimilation.

-Machines took place of skilled work and workers would oversee only one aspect of production, making cheap goods quickly. 24 hour workdays, owners would bar/paint windows to keep them from 'daydreaming'.
-Dangerous conditions pouring molten hot steel after 12 hours
-American laborers decided to organize for safer work and better wages.
-'scabs' or cheap replacements during protesting and strikes
-Owners would lock out employees to stop strike before it happens, blacklist, and offer yellow-dog contracts, an oath that the worker would not join a union as a condition.
-The Great RR Strike 1877 happened when rail companies cut wages by 10% during a depression (2nd time). The nationwide strike paralyzed rail traffic. President Rutherford Hayes authorized federal troops to break it up (100 men died).
-National Labor Union founded 1866urged better working conditions, higher wages, shorter hours, and including women and African Americans
-Knights of Labor under Terrance Powderly was all-inclusive. He advocated economic and social reforms: 8 hr workday, government regulation and arbitration rather than violence. But after 1 violent protest where a bomb was thrown, many believed it was an anarchist and lost many members.
-Many joined Samuel Gompers' American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886 concentrating on 'bread and butter' economic issues.
-WHen Carnegie's manager of Homestead Steel announced 20% wage cut in 1892, Henry Clay Flick locked out all members of the steel workers union before a strike could occur. Strikers became violent at the scabs. When police were called, 16 died and 150 wounded. State militia was ordered and the union crushed.

-U.S. Senator "Fighting Bob" Robert La Follette made WI the model for increased voter power at the ballot box as the first to institute direct primaries (voters nominated state candidates)
-WI and others adopted the initiative (voters propose law), referendum (laws placed on ballot) and recall (voters remove elected official via ballot)
-17th Amendment adopted direct election of Senators 1913
-Public entities (electricity, water, transpiration) were privatized to release power of corrupt political machines.
-Progressive Pres. Roosevelt's Square Deal busted harmful trusts, incr. gov't regulation of big business, fair labor, and conservation of the natural environment.
-1st 'modern' president w/ coal miners' dispute, threatening to run the mines with federal troops, the owners lifted the lockout, offered 10% raises and gave 9 hr workdays.
-He busted the Northern Securities Company (RR Company)
-Elkins Act 1903 let ICC prohibit rail companies from giving rebates and kickbacks to favored cutomers.
-Hepburn Act 1906 allowed ICC to regulate shipping rates
-Upton Sinclaire's 'The Jungle' exposed filthy conditions in the meatpacking plants, and panicked the nation.
-Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act 1906
-Progressive Pres. William Taft 1909 followed and saw the 16th Amendment for federal gov't to collect income tax.
-Election of 1912: Republican Taft, Progressive Rep. Roosevelt and Democratic Woodrow Wilson who promised smaller gov't, decreased big business influence, and support for entrepreneurs and small businesses.
-Wilson introduced new policies, after Panic of 1907, The Federal Reserve Act 1913 created the Federal Reserve System consisting of 12 regional banks holding/selling nations bonds and issuing Federal Reserve Notes (dollar bills).
-To curb monopolies, the Clayton Antitrust Act 1913
-Federal Trade Commission 1914 monitored interstate business w/ 'cease and desist' orders for lawbreakers.

-Trouble started in Spanish-held Cuba. Americans had moved there to establish sugar plantations on the tropical island.
-Cubans had become more irritated by foreigners making fortunes while they toiled on the plantations.
-Spanish sensed revolt and decided to 'reconcentrate' Cubans centrally under direct Spanish control and many died
-"Yellow journalism" stretched the truth of Cuban stories and many became increasingly concerned.
-After a letter was leaked of Spanish minister claming McKinley as corrupt, the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor under mysterious circumstances 1898, killing 260 sailors. The Spanish denied any role in the tragedy.
-Americans cried 'Remember the Maine' to McKinley to declare war on Spain. The Teller Amendment to this would have the U.S. grant Cuba independence after the war.
-Fighting began in Spanish Philippines. Many Filipinos fought to oust the Spanish and American forces. The U.s. convinced Emilio Aguinaldo to assist in exchange for independence.
-In Cuba, most American deaths were caused by diseases and food poisoning (10% combat).
-On San Juan Hill, Teddy Roosevelt and his volunteer students and cowboys were called "Rough Riders"
-After victory in Cuba, it invaded Spanish Puerto Rico for 1 mo
-The peace treaty gave the U.S. Guam and Puerto Rico.
-President McKinley didn't want to give up the Philippines with the risk of a dictator or other country taking over, and if he took it he would face a court of world opinion. He decided to take it and deal with independence later.

-Insular Cases: a citizen in a conquered territory did not necessarily have the protection of the Constitution.
-Platt Amendment in 1902 required Cubans to write their new constitution to gain freedom and must allow the U.S. to have access to naval bases on the island.
-Filipinos broke out into revolt; horrible guerrilla warfare in the jungles in 1899.
-"Open Door Policy": China and surrounding regions woul dbe open to free trade with any nation.
-The Boxer Rebellion sought the remove all foreigners by force; rebels killed 200 whites. The Chinese were not interested in foreign intervention politically or economically.
-The U.S. needed to secure a right to build the (Suez) canal from Colombia, but they did not agree to the Hay-Paucefote Treaty. The nation of panama would have to be created quickly. President Teddy R. raised a revolutionary force to declare Panama independent from Colombia and they were given permission to build the canal in 1903 till 1914.
-To protect Latin America from European intervention, Roosevelt's new policy 'Roosevelt Corollary' promised U.S. aid to Latin American nations with financial trouble.
-Roosevelt also intervened in the Russo-Japanese War 1904 as they feuded over Manchuria and Korea ports and settled the war with the Treaty of Portsmouth 1905.
-An influx of Japanese in San Fran to escape financial crisis became enraged with discrimination. Teddy crafted a "Gentleman's Agreement" btw San Fran school Board and Japanese. The school board would allow Japanese to be admitted in the Japanese gov't limited immigrants in CA.