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-worldly over spiritual
-live life today (rather than wait for heaven)`


-potential value and goodness of humans


italian city-state


-made the "David"
-painted the Sistine Chapel Ceiling

Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo painted the ceiling
-cloaks were painted over the private parts by Pope order

Italian City-state

ex: florence,venice, pisa, milan
-independent,rule by an oligarchy
-escape of being controlled by the Pope or the holy roman emperor


ruled by the Elite

Vanishing Point

made things look more realistic

Leonardo Da Vinci

-pushes the boundary
-renaissance man(gained respect)
-painted the last supper


the pieces of paper the Church sold to be accompanied with prayer to be rid of the minor sins you have committed


the place where you wait if you have not paid your indulgences

Pope Leo X

Giovanni Medici's pope name

Martin Luther

o 1517-Ninety Five Theses(95 things that are wrong)
• starts Lutheran protestants
-german monk

Justification by Faith

being considered righteous or worthy to go to Heaven(i.e. forgiven for your sins)

Guttenberg Press

introduces the printing press and moveable type to Europe
• changes the language(standardized lettering), spreading Luthers ideas

John Calvin

Swiss Layer
o 1536-the institutes of the Christian Religion
• starts Calvinism church


the decision if you are going to hell or not

The Elect

have been selected to go to Heaven

King Henry VIII

wants a divorce to produce a male heir
• Pope will not allow it
• Act of supremacy of 1534
o Henry names himself head of the church in England
o Goes through six wives

Queen Elizabeth I

"virgin Queen"
-never marries thats why called virgin queen
-keeps catholic ideas and practice
-rules from 1558-1603

Church of England

o keeps catholic ideas and practice
o English monarch head of church
o Unhappy Calvinists call themselves "puritans"


unhappy calvinists

Vasco De Gama

o Goal: Spices from india
o 1497-1499
o rounds cape of good hope
o explores east Africa
o tension with Muslim traders

Ferdinand and Isabella

-of Spain

• Marriage unifies Spain:
o "Reconquest" of Muslim territory
• Forced conversions
• Kicked out jews and muslims
• "Golden Age"
• finance chirstopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus

• Sail west to get to the East
• Overestimated the size of Asia
• Underestimated the size of the Atlantic
• Didn't know about the Americas
• Spain is desperate to get the upper hand in the spice trade


when everything comes to the middle


Renaissance period


when columbus sails the ocean blue


when Vasco de Gama rounds the cape


when martin luther posts his 95 theses


act of supremacy


luther bible


spanish armada is defeated by the english

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