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long, narrow island parallel to the mainland, created by buildup of deposited sediments, protects the coast from erosion
Earth's surface at the equator is moving faster than the poles, creating major prevailing winds that distribute heat unevenly; winds deflected right in the Northern hemisphere and left in the Southern hemisphere
5 degrees north and south of equator, Intertropical Convergence Zone; here, trade winds converge and produce convectional storms; air constantly rising, not blowing
30-35 degrees north and south of equator, subsiding dry air and high pressure results in very weak winds
land heats up and cools down faster than water does; hot dry air rises, replaced by cooler moist air blowing from ocean, which also rises and creates seasonal rainfall
normal trade winds are reversed due to a reversal of pressure systems on either side of the tropical Pacific (Southern Oscillation); upwelling in Central and North America's coast stops, water warmer and contains fewer nutrients; offshore fish populations decline
epilimnion - upper, most oxygenated
thermocline - demarcation line, at which temperature shifts dramatically
hypolimnion - lower, colder, denser layer
very shallow freshwater layer, abundant sunlight; extends as far as rooted plants grow
very cold, dark, low oxygen levels, but high level of nutrients because of decaying plant and animal matter that sinks down from zones above
seasonal movement of water from the cold and nutrient-rich bottom to surface; provide new nutrient supply for growth of living organisms
water transported very long distances from its source, through aqueducts or pipelines
Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
protected fish that live in the sea but grow up and breed in freshwater
Marine Mammal Protection Act
federal responsibility in protecting marine mammal considered threatened or endangered
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, international agreement that prohibited the capture, transport, and sale of endangered or threatened species
coastal wetlands in tropical and subtropical regions; constantly replenished by nutrients from freshwater runoff, huge diversity of animals, support bacteria, decomposers, oysters, worms, that feed fish and shrimp
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