APWH 1750-1900 Review
Terms in this set (50)
What is proto-industrialization?
Shift away from agriculture to industrial work in the home.
How did Creole elites in Latin America view the Haitian independence movement?
They rejected it.
What are causes of the American Revolution?
Imposition of taxes and trade control, "no taxation without representation", and restrictions on settlement.
What are causes of the French Revolution?
Enlightenment ideas, poor government, and economic problems.
Discuss Marxism in Russia - specifically how Lenin introduced innovations in the theory.
Lenin said that because of the spread of international capitalism, a proletariat was developing worldwide in advance of industrialization. he insisted the importance of revolutionary cells.
What culture characteristics of the West were not adopted by large numbers of Japanese?
In 1820, Greece fought for it's independence from?
The Ottoman Empire.
What accounts for the West's victory over Russia in the Crimean War?
Who managed the unification of Italy?
Count Camillo di Cavour.
Who was Louis Pasteur?
A scientist that discovered germs/that microbes were responsible for souring alcohol and came up with the process of pasteurization - boiling then cooling liquid to rid it of microbes/germs. This saved millions of lives.
Who developed the steam engine?
In the pre-Industrial era what were motivations for European expansion?
Material things, economic reasons, power over external enemies.
What European power supported the Ottomans in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the Mediterranean?
How were 18th century land empires in Asia accumulated by Europe?
By the initiative of overseas agents of the Dutch and British East India Companies acting in the absence of instructions from the company directors.
What difficulties did Indian princes face in defending their kingdoms from the British?
Continued warfare among princes, lack of a national identity in India, willingness of Indians to serve in British armies, and the strength of the British army.
What is a nabob?
Representatives of the British East India Company who went out to secure sudden wealth, often through corruption.
Who was responsible for sweeping reforms in India in the 1790s?
Charles Cornwallis/Lord Cornwallis.
What was the impact of British Opium trade on China?
Silver depleted from the Chinese economy, unemployment numbers increased, and agriculture stopped.
What is a tropical dependency?
Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the south pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations.
Prior to 1902, what kind of colony was South Africa?
Contested settler colony.
What was the Great Mahele in 1848?
Hawaiian edict issued that imposed Western property concepts that resulted in much Hawaiian land passed to Western commercial interests.
What is Manifest Destiny?
The belief that the US was destined to stretch out from the Atlantic to the Pacific, "from sea to shining sea".
In what century did most Latin American countries achieve their independence?
The 19th century.
The leader of the slave independence movement on the island of St Dominique was?
Who was Father Miguel de Hidalgo?
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.
What is a caudillo?
Military leaders that dominated local areas with small armies.
What is the Monroe Doctrine of 1823?
It declared neutrality, alliance with South American states, and warned Europe that US was off limits to colonization.
What happened at the Battle of Plassey?
British defeated combined force of French and American Indians.
Peru's primary export to Europe between 1850 and 1880 was?
What was the new export crop in Brazil that made up over 40% of Brazil's exports by 1840?
Describe the status of women in post-independence Latin America?
Some participated in independence movements, almost no change in their role, but girls and boys went to school from ages 7-15.
What European power seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the 18th century?
Austrian Habsburg Dynasty.
In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottoman's survival?
Who was Charles Darwin?
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection.
What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III 1789-1807?
Angered powerful factions within the bureaucracy.
What were the Tanzimat Reforms?
Restructuring reforms by the nineteenth century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient.
What dynastic name did the Manchus use in China?
What is a White Dominion and what are examples?
Colonies where Europeans were the majority. Ex: Canada and Australia
List signs of dynastic decline in the China by the beginning of the 19th century.
Corruption of the civil service exam, funding for army and public work decreased, food shortages.
Unhappy with the unequal balance of trade in China the British began trading what product in China and where were they (the British) getting this product?
What is the event that started the French Revolution?
Storming of the Bastille.
The Chinese official charged with eliminating the Opium trade in the 1830s was?
What regions defied the common pattern of growing Western domination by the 19th century?
Russia and Japan.
Britain's Australian colonies originated in 1788 as what?
What are similarities between Japan and Russia during the period of Industrialism prior to 1914?
Both had prior experience of imitation, Japan imitated China, and Russia imitated the Byzantium and the West.
What region was the first to successfully rebel and gain independence from the Ottoman Empire?
What accounts for Russia's lack of significant revolution in 1830 and 1848?
What was the first step toward industrialization in Russia?
The creation of an extensive systems of railways.
Who was Commodore Matthew Perry?
He was responsible for the forced opening of Japan to the West.
What are major similarities between Japanese and Russian Industrialization as it applies to capital, new technology and state direction.
Both managed to avoid Western dominance, created more effective central governments, both had fallen behind the West in technology.
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