History 102 Final
What were the main causes of why USA entered WWI?
1) Unrestricted submarine warfare
2) Lusitania sinking
3) Zimmerman's Telegram
What french general was the hero of the Battle of Verdun?
Henri Petain "They Shall Not Pass!"
What was the main cause of Russia dropping out of WWI?
The Russian Revolution
What incident was a good example of Germany's "unrestricted submarine warfare" policies?
The sinking of Lusitania
What American general led the A.E.F. in Europe?
Gemeral John "Black Jack"
What act drafted American men into the military in WWI?
The Selective Service Act of 1917
What does Wilson believe will help end the conflict and rebuild a better Europe after the war?
League of Nations; The Fourteen Points
On what date does the Armistice end the war?
November 11th, 1918
Who were the Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference?
USA, France, Britain, Italy
What objectives did the Allies force on Germany in an attempt to keep them weak?
1)War Reparations ($35 billion)
2)Germany limited to 100,000 troops
3)War Guilt clauses
4)Lost German colonies
What new countries were formed by Treaty of Versailles?
3)Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
5) Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
What was the Weimar Republic? Why did it fail after World War I?
Germany's government after WWI; Inflation/war reparations
What is Fascism?
Ring Wing political ideology, created because of fear of communism, very pro militaristic, Nationalist, ruled by totalitarian dictactors in police state.
Who is the prototypical Fascist dictator that others copied
What was the nickname of Mussolini's seizure of power in Italy in 1922?
The March In Rome
Who were his Black Shirts?
Fascist para-military group
What was Mussolini's title?
Il Duce (The Leader)
What was the background of Adolf Hitler?
Fuhrer of Nazi Germany, founder of Nazi Party. Born in Austria. Failed to become artist in Vienna. A war veteran in Bavaria. 1919 NSDAP
What was the official name of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party?
What was the Beer Hall Putsch?
Hitler attempts to overthrow the government of Munich, Bavaria. He fails and is arrested.
In what city did Hitler attempt to seize power in 1923?
What was Hitler's book he published after being in prison for the attempted coup?
What was "Anschluss"
Merge Austria and Germany
Hitler's Henchmen: Herman Guering
Head of Prussian Police Luftwaffe; developed concentration camp
Hitler's Henchmen: Heinrich Himmler
Head of S.S "Black Shirts" waffen; Nickname "Hangman"; Head of GESTAPO
Hitler's Henchmen: Reinhard Heydrich
Lieutenant of Himmler- S.D.
Hitler's Ernst Rohem
Head of S.A. "Brown Shirts"
What was the Enabling Act?
Gave Hitler emergency powers as a dictator
What event in June 1934 helped seal his total power over Germany?
Night of the Long Knives
What was Hitler's title he went by?
What was the West's policy of Appeasement about?
Hitler could take what he wanted in turn for peace/no war
What land in Europe does Hitler first take back in 1936?
What was the Axis Powers (Rome-Berlin Axis)?
Germany, Italy, Japan
What was the Munich Conference in 1938?
Chamberlin held a conference to bring peace
What was the "Non-Aggression Pact"? What was the "Pact of Steel"?
Pact of Steel: Military alliance with Italy
Non-Aggression Pact: No war (prevented a 2 front war) between germany and soviets
What date does Hitler invade Poland starting WWII?
September 1st, 1939
What does "Blitzkrieg" mean?
What was the Phony War after the fall of Poland?
What place does Hitler invade through which leads to the Fall of the West in 1940?
Belgium via Ardennes Forest
What was the southern part of France called after their defeat in 1940?
Who led the Free French government in London?
Charles De Gaulle
Who becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain after France falls?
Nazi's take Paris make France sign an Armistice in what location
What two air forces tangled in the Battle of Britain?
Luftwaffe VS RAF
What was the "London Blitz"?
Civilian bombings of London by Nazis
What was Operation Barbarossa?
Invading Soviet Union
What were the Cash and Carry, and Lend-Lease programs?
USA supplying Arms; Lending weapons to everyone
What was the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere?
What was the Rape of Nanking?
Invaded China and taking over the east; slaughter
What was the main cause of why USA entered World War II?
Attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan
Who were the Flying Tigers?
AVG American Volunteer Group
Who was Admiral Yamamoto?
Head of the Japanese Navy; reason for Pearl Harbor attacks
What date was Pearl Harbor bombed?
December 7th, 1941
What three major battles were turning points for the Allies in 1942?
1)Battle of Midway (Pacific)
2)El Alamein (N Africa)
3)Stalingrad (Eastern Campaign)
Who was Erwin Rommel? What was the Afrika Korps?
Top Hitler general in Africa; Desert Fox
What famous general defeated Rommel's forces in Egypt in 1942?
Bernard Montgomery "Monty"
What was Operation Torch?
What was Operation Overlord?
was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces
What allied operation in 1943 led to Mussolini resigning?
Allied of Sicily
What were some major battles associated with the Italian campaign?
Battle of Kursk, Battle of Monte Casino(for Rome)
Who lead the D-Day forces on June 6, 1944 into Normandy, France?
What two main beaches did US forces land at?
Omaha & Utah
What was the July 20 Plot in 1944?
An attempt to assassinate Hitler
What was Hitler's last major offensive in the West?
Battle of the Bulge
When does Germany surrender (V-E Day)?
May 8th, 1945
What was the main US project to build the Atomic Bomb?
What two men ran the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos?
General Leslie Groves; J. Robert Oppenheimer
What two bombs were dropped on Japan? What famous plane dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima?
1) "Fat Man"
2)"Little Boy" B-29 Enola Gay
When does Japan surrender on V-J Day?
August 15th, 1945
What was the Cold War?
Cold stand off between USA vs. Soviet Union
What two superpowers remained after WWII?
Soviet Union and USA
What world body was developed by Allies after WWII?
What happened to Germany after WWII?
Split up and Occupied
1) USA, Brit, France- western G
2) Soviets- eastern G
Berlin divided( same as above)
What was the Berlin Airlift about?
Soviets blockaded W. Berlin; Western powers did an Airlift to save them
What was "De-Stalinization" in Soviet Union?
Getting rid of Stalin's Policies
What war broke out in 1950 escalating the Cold War?
UN forces were led by this former WWII commander?
Who built the Berlin Wall to separate the East from West?
Who coined the term "Iron Curtain" about Communist Eastern Europe?
What was the USA's Marshall Plan and its objective?
What was the peak of the Cold War?
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution under President LBJ led to what US war?
Why did the USA believe they had to intervene in SE Asia?
In what year does the Berlin Wall fall singling an end to the Cold War?
What major events occur after the Cold War?
Gulf War, 6 day War, 9/11, etc