Research - Exam 3 Definitions

Research in SLP - Exam 3 Definitions
clinical outcome
result of intervention
clinical practice guidelines
combine the info. gleaned from all levels of evidence. Provide recommendations for clinical courses of action that are tied and supported by evidence
single-subject or a small number of subjects
degrees of freedom
indicates the number of values in a set of data
direct replication
extends generalization to the same population, setting or variables. Investigator repeats the research with same subjects or new group of subjects to confirm reliability of original results and test their generality
effect size
scale-free, standardized values that provide indication of the extent to which the value of DVs is explained by an IV
clinical decision-making that integrates the application of clinical experience and expertise, recognition of the needs and perspectives of the person receiving services and identification of the vest supporting scientific research evidence
inferential statistics
serve to analyze the data in ways that assist the researcher to assign meaning to the results. Reference the summary statistics of each condition or group for the purpose of making comparisons
levels of evidence
classification system that established a hierarchy of evidence based on scientific quality and rigor
provide quantitative summary of the consistence of findings and size of the effects from those studies that meet inclusion criteria
power analysis
2 uses: BEFORE tx: to determine the ss required to reach a given alpha level. AFTER tx: to further evaluate research to determine if a rejection of the null was related to a sample size that was too small
comments that are not empirically based. (Important in generalization of new research and contribute to the creativity that is important in designing new research)
systematic replication
research repeated under different conditions or with different subjects in order to extend generalization to other subjects + methods
therapeutic effect
manifestation of altered physiology (via tx) as beneficial change
treatment effectiveness
evidence that tx is effective; established when intervention results in a clinically significant improvement in ct's comm. skills
treatment efficacy
evidence that tx is beneficial; improvement shown to be due to tx and not other factors, real and replicable, and clinically important
treatment efficiency
outcome measures; important for making clinical management decisions
treatment fidelity
Treatment fidelity has to do with how accurately or faithfully a program (or intervention) is reproduced from a manual, protocol or model
achieved fidelity
treatment represents the treatment as it is actually implemented
intended fidelity
represents absolute fidelity to the gold standard treatment prototype; theoretically, this is the level of fidelity needed to achieve maximum treatment effects
practical significance
looks at whether the difference is large enough to be of value in a practical sense
clinical significance
whether the intervention makes a real difference in everyday life of individuals