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Research in SLP - Exam 3 Definitions

clinical outcome

result of intervention

clinical practice guidelines

combine the info. gleaned from all levels of evidence. Provide recommendations for clinical courses of action that are tied and supported by evidence


single-subject or a small number of subjects

degrees of freedom

indicates the number of values in a set of data

direct replication

extends generalization to the same population, setting or variables. Investigator repeats the research with same subjects or new group of subjects to confirm reliability of original results and test their generality

effect size

scale-free, standardized values that provide indication of the extent to which the value of DVs is explained by an IV


clinical decision-making that integrates the application of clinical experience and expertise, recognition of the needs and perspectives of the person receiving services and identification of the vest supporting scientific research evidence

inferential statistics

serve to analyze the data in ways that assist the researcher to assign meaning to the results. Reference the summary statistics of each condition or group for the purpose of making comparisons

levels of evidence

classification system that established a hierarchy of evidence based on scientific quality and rigor


provide quantitative summary of the consistence of findings and size of the effects from those studies that meet inclusion criteria

power analysis

2 uses: BEFORE tx: to determine the ss required to reach a given alpha level. AFTER tx: to further evaluate research to determine if a rejection of the null was related to a sample size that was too small


comments that are not empirically based. (Important in generalization of new research and contribute to the creativity that is important in designing new research)

systematic replication

research repeated under different conditions or with different subjects in order to extend generalization to other subjects + methods

therapeutic effect

manifestation of altered physiology (via tx) as beneficial change

treatment effectiveness

evidence that tx is effective; established when intervention results in a clinically significant improvement in ct's comm. skills

treatment efficacy

evidence that tx is beneficial; improvement shown to be due to tx and not other factors, real and replicable, and clinically important

treatment efficiency

outcome measures; important for making clinical management decisions

treatment fidelity

Treatment fidelity has to do with how accurately or faithfully a program (or intervention) is reproduced from a manual, protocol or model

achieved fidelity

treatment represents the treatment as it is actually implemented

intended fidelity

represents absolute fidelity to the gold standard treatment prototype; theoretically, this is the level of fidelity needed to achieve maximum treatment effects

practical significance

looks at whether the difference is large enough to be of value in a practical sense

clinical significance

whether the intervention makes a real difference in everyday life of individuals

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