The Sultanate of Oman
Terms in this set (114)
How large is the Indian Ocean?
68,536,000 square km
20% of all ocean surface
3rd largest ocean of 5 (1 and 2 are the Pacific and Atlantic respectively)
Where is the world's largest monsoon system?
The Indian Ocean
Why do monsoons happen?
Unbalanced heat absorption between land and water, Earth's rotation, the storage and release of energy in water vapor
When is the monsoon season?
June to September
Who gets the most rainfall during the monsoon season?
How did the Arabian (Persian) Gulf form?
It used to be a river 15,000 years ago, but widened until it reached its current size.
What factors made the Arabian (Persian) Gulf conducive to trade?
It was relatively calmer than the Indian Ocean as it did not have monsoon winds. Location - ailors could not get lost as long as they sailed along the coast.
What is the Strait of Hormuz?
The chokepoint of the Arabian Gulf.
How wide is the Strait of Hormuz?
48 km (30 miles)
Where is the Strait of Hormuz located?
It is between the Gulf of Oman (Arabian Gulf) and the Arabian Sea. The Arabian Gulf then continues NW until it meets the Shatt al Arab, the meeting of the Euphrates and the Tigris.
What was the Arabian (Persian) Gulf before it was a sea?
A river valley 1000 km long. (20,000 years ago)
What is the only outlet for the salty water of the Arabian Gulf to mix with the Indian Ocean?
The Strait of Hormuz
What is Magan?
What were Magan's main exports?
Timber, copper, and stone diorite, which was used in Mesopotamia for building, art, and everyday utensils.
What were Mesopotamia's main exports to Magan?
Wool, grain, paint, leather, and oil
When was Magan most prosperous?
What is a magan?
A boat made with reeds, coated with bitumen and clay, and fitted with a mast and a square sail. Uses steering oars.
Where are the beehive tombs and circular towers of Bat located?
The hills and high valleys north of Bat
When did the beehive tombs and circular towers exist?
The 3rd millennium BCE (The Bronze Age)
What does the existence of the beehive tombs and circular towers mean?
Evidence of a thriving settlement during the 3rd millennium BCE.
When were the northernmost tombs extant?
When were the more southern tombs extant?
What were the circular towers evidence of?
A thriving settlement, series of oasis towns
What were the circular towers used for (hypotheses)?
Irrigation or well system
What was copper used for?
Tools, weapons, utensils, sculptures, jewelry
Where was copper used?
Mesopotamia and Iran
What was the main port where Omani copper was traded?
When and how was Ubar found?
1994 using the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavor. Found on the southern part of Oman.
What was Ubar?
A fortified city (fortress on site)
Why did Ubar collapse?
Limestone deposits under the city and water created a cavern system over time.
When did Ubar thrive?
2800 BCE to 300 CE, the incense trade began in 5000 BCE
What is a kamal?
Navigation tool consisting of a small, rectangular card, and a knotted cord.
How does a kamal work?
It aligns latitudes at sea with particular stars
What were the uses of frankincense and myrrh?
Religious rituals, insect repellent, medicine, embalming Egyptian mummies.
Where do frankincense and myrrh come from?
Dried sap of trees grown exclusively in Southern Arabia, Ethiopia, and Somalia
What does Arabia Felix mean? Why is it named that?
"Arabia the Blessed" or "Happy Arabia". It had a lot of frankincense and myrrh.
When was Scylax of Caryanda's famous voyage?
What was the goal of Scylax's voyage and where did he go?
To find the mouth of the Indus River. Entered the river through Pakistan and sailed downstream into the Arabian Sea. Harmozeia (near Straight of Hormuz) --> Oman --> sailed along southern shore of The Arabian Peninsula --> Yemen --> Up the Red Sea to Suez
What was Periplus of the Erythraen Sea?
A trader's handbook
When was Periplus written?
around 70 CE
What is the importance of Natural History by Pliny the Elder?
Provides evidence of trade between Rome and the Arabian Peninsula
When was Natural History written?
Where is Sohar?
Port city on the Strait of Hormuz
Who is Sohar named after?
A descendant of the Prophet Noah (named in 6c CE)
What is the oldest and most wealthy city in Oman?
Why was Sohar so prosperous?
Source of copper, good harbor, strategic location
When was Sohar prosperous?
Between the 8th and 15th centuries
When was Sohar castle built?
during the 13th and 14th century
What was 'The Sohar''s voyage?
Oman to China
What is an Arab dhow?
ship with a triangular sail, made of teak, sewn or lashed together with coir (coconut fiber), planks side-by-side with coir+gum caulk, double ended
What were the advantages of the dhow?
The teak did not rot easily in water so it lasted longer. Also, the coir instead of nails made it more flexible in the even of an accident. Very agile in various winds.
How did the dhow change in the 11th century?
The steering oars were replaced by a sternpost-rudder
What was grown in Dhofar?
Millet, bananas, betel-trees, coco-palms
Where is Dhofar?
In Oman along the Oman-Yemen border.
What did Dhofar export?
Thoroughbred horses to India
What was Dhofar's staple food? Where did it come from?
Rice from India
Where is Zanzibar?
The Indian Ocean, 20 km off the East African Coast, just south of the equator
What is Zanzibar? How big is it?
Large coral island about 1660 sq. km.
Who first settled Zanzibar and when?
Fishing folk 4000 BCE
When was Zanzibar discovered by the rest of the world?
What is the local language of Zanzibar?
Kiswahili, combination of Bantu and Arabic
Where is Muscat?
Near the Strait of Hormuz
When was Muscat invaded by the Portuguese?
1507, secured in 1514
When was Muscat reclaimed by Oman?
1650, captured in 1648
When was Fort Jesus in Mombasa taken by Omani forces?
1698, by Saif bin Sultan
Who was Ahmad Ibn Majid?
A famous Omani sailor who sailed around Africa and Asia
Who wrote "The Book of Useful Information of the Principles of Rules of Navigation"?
Ahmad Ibn Majid
When was Ahmad Ibn Majid born?
When and what was the USA Friendship Treaty?
FTA with Oman in 1833
What was the first joint agreement between the U.S. and an Arab Gulf State?
The USA Friendship Treaty with Oman
What were the USA's main exports to Oman?
What did the USA trade for in Zanzibar?
Cloves, ivory, gum copal, copra, spices
When did Zanzibar come under the control of the Sultanate of Oman?
What were Zanzibar's main exports?
Cloves, ivory, copal, leather/skins, red pepper, sesame, copra, coco oil, tortoise/cowry shells, beeswax, tallow
Where are three Omani trading posts?
Zanzibar, Kilwa, and Pemba
What were the Red Sea's main exports?
What were the Southern Coast's main exports?
dried fish, fish oil, ghee, and onions
What were the main exports of the Omani mainland?
dates, raisins, donkeys, horses, cloth, persian carpets, silks, almonds, spices
When was the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque completed?
May 4, 2001
How large is the world's largest hand woven carpet in the mosque?
70x60 m, 1700 million knots, 21 tons, 4 yrs to produce
How large is the world's largest chandelier in the mosque?
8.5 tons, 46 ft. tall, 26 ft. diameter, 1,114 halogen bulbs, 24-carat gold plated
How many people were in Tom Severin's crew on The Sohar?
What is Majlis al Jinn?
The second largest cavern network in the world
What is the length of the initial drop of Majlis al Jinn?
What is the use of Majlis al Jinn?
What is a UNESCO World Heritage site in Oman?
the aflaj irrigation systems
When did the UNESCO World Heritage program begin?
How many World Heritage sites are there?
When was the USA Friendship Treaty replaced? By what?
1958, Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights
When did the U.S. and Oman establish a diplomatic relationship?
When did Oman and the U.S. sign a military cooperation agreement?
1980, revised and renewed in 2010
What current issues does Oman face (security)?
Piracy, weapons smuggling, narcotics trafficking, border control
What percent of the world's oil exports pass through the Strait of Hormuz?
What did the Omani protests in 2011 lead to?
Moderate political and economic reforms, including the creation of 50,000 public sector jobs
When was the Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation signed?
Approximately how much is foreign military aid from the U.S. worth?
How long have the United States and Oman had an FTA?
What does the U.S. export to Oman?
machinery, vehicles, aircrafts, agricultural products, medical instruments
What does Oman export to the U.S.?
oil, jewelry, plastic, iron, fertilizer, steel products
How much did Oman exports to the U.S. total in 2014?
How much did U.S. exports to Oman total in 2014?
more than $2 billion, 28.2% increase from 2013
Who is the U.S. ambassador to Oman?
When did Qaboos bin Said al-Said come into power?
What is Oman's population size?
3,286,936 ; 30% immigrants
When did Oman gain independence?
1950 when they drove out the Portuguese
What is the capital of Oman?
How many governates are in Oman?
What is Oman's GDP per capita?
$39,700 as of 2014
What was Oman's GDP real growth rate in 2014?
What are Oman's current main exports?
petroleum, reexports, fish, metal, textiles
Who are Oman's main export partners?
China - 43%, UAE 10.3%, South Korea - 8.2%
Who are Oman's main import partners?
UAE - 32.5%, Japan - 12.2%, China - 4.8%, India - 4.3%, Saudi Arabia - 4.1%
What is Oman's currency?
Why did Islam promote seafare?
portable, framework for social/economic interactions, encouraged unification