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Nutrition Final

STUDY
PLAY
The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the
Placenta
What vitamin routinely is given by injection to all infants at birth?
Vitamin K
children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if
Parents eat breakfast with them
The label on a package of Cool Aid indicates that it contains vitamin C. The amount listed is a percentage of the
Daily Value
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
Anthropometrics
The most important dietary approach for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is to
Lose body fat
Which of the following includes all energy-yielding substances?
Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein
Breast milk contains approximately how many kcalories per quart?
640
The first trimester of pregnancy
is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus
The most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is
height
The best exercise for overweight people is
Bicycling
All of the following are recommended to help preschoolers eat vegetables except
Promise dessert when vegetables are eaten
-Show the child you like vegetables
-Offer new vegetables with familiar foods
-serve vegetables undercooked and crunchy
Cholesterol is found in all of the following except
Corn oil
-Cheddar cheese
-Sirloin steak
-Butter
What is the composition of the triglyceride form of fats?
Fatty acids and glycerol
All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except
There is significant evidence that they are harmful
-Supplements of vitamin A can be dangerous
-Supplements commonly contain iron and folate
-Physicians routinely prescribe them
The childhood disease is due to a _____ deficiency.
Vitamin D
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the best age to introduce solid foods into the infant's diet is
4-6 months
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends which of the following?
Being physically active each day
Cardiovascular disease risk factors include
HDL cholesterol > 40 mg/dl
Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?
Insulin
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following except
Lie down after she eats
-Eat less fat
-Avoid spicy food
-Consume liquids between meals
A vegetarian who excludes animal flesh but consumes such products as milk and eggs is referred to as a(n)
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian
Which of the following is true about lactation?
The major reason why women do not breast-feed is lack of information
Current factors that can influence American food habits negatively are
The time-oriented, hurried lifestyle to many meals eaten away from home
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
High protein diets may be harmful for
Those with kidney disease
The body stores excess protein as
Triglycerides
Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ___ to ____ months
4 - 6 months
Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that
79 - 100 girls her age are taller than she is
To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
Lungs
Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
The body mass index
A vegetarian who eats only plant foods is a(n)
Vegan
During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate
essential fatty acids - linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all the following except
A low-birth weight infant
-High blood pressure
-Diabetes during pregnancy
-Surgical complications
Lactose intolerance is caused by
Lactase deficiency
All of the following are advantages to breast-feeding except
Increased risk of developing food allergies
-Fewer gastrointestinal infections
-Fewer respiratory infections
-Decreased financial costs
The most active area for the absorption of nutrients into the body is the
Small intestine
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
Portal vein
The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the extra calcium she needs is to consume
Low-fat milk and cheese
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
Two monosaccharides
Maggie has anorexia nerovsa and regualrly starves herself. She is likely to be in state of
Negative protein blance
The acronym RDA stands for
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Basal metabolism is the energy expended
When resting, but awake, and in a fasting state
What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
Bile
Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?
Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrients needs
Which of the following is not a class of nutrient?
Alcohol
All of the following are true of high quality protein except
It provides 7 kcal/g of energy
-It contains all essential amino acids
-It can support body maintenance
-It can support body growth
For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?
Marathon
Approximately what percentage of obese children become obese adults?
40%
Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system
To block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat
The new WHO growth standards stress that ____ is the biological norm for infant nutrition
Breastfeeding
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
Vitamin D
During each fedding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?
Fat increases
Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
Monounsaturated
Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice and dirt is known as
Pica
A saturated fatty acid contains
No double bonds
The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is
Oxytocin
An adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the immune system is
A food intolerance
Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food
Appetite
A function of the large intestine is to absorb?
Water and minerals
The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called
Photosynthesis
Which of the following statements is true?
Most overweight infants become normal weight preschoolers
All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except
The number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body
-The storage capacity for fat depends on both fat cell number and fat cell size
-The number increases when storage capacity has reached its limit
-The body's ability to store fat is limitless
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic
Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ___ to develop
Nervous system
Extra kcalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?
2nd and 3rd
Which of the following is true about the lymphatic system?
It is important for transporting fat-soluble nutrients
High-fiber diets are
Not recommended for infants
Which statement about vitamins is true?
Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
The vitamin that prevents beriben is
Thiamin
Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US, after ____
heart disease
___ tumors stay in one place
Benign
Which of the following is associated with increased cancer risk?
viruses
heredity
environment
smoking
BBQed foods
Which of the following are the "Five things you should remember about preventing cancer"?
Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Discover the pleasure of physical activity
Stay tobacco free
Enjoy a low-fat diet
Diabetes is the __ leading cause of death from disease in the U.S.
sixth
Which type of diabetes has the following symptoms:
-Caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells
-Can occur at any age
-Patients require exogenous insulin (injections or pumps)
Type 1
Which is a symptom of Diabetes?
Increased thirst
Increased urination
Increased hunger
Unusual weight change
Which is not a key hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans?
Grehrin
-Insulin
-Glucagon
-Somatostatin
Which is not a key effect of Insulin?
Promotes breakdown of tissue fat and protein
-Stimulates changes of glucose to fat for storage as body fat
-Helps transport glucose into cells
-Helps change glucose to glycogen and store it in liver, muscles
-Influences burning of glucose for energy
A criteria for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is
Fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl
Which of the following are an element of a therapy plan for diabetes?
diet, exercise, ensuring adequate insulin activity, controlling stress
What is another name for a stroke?
Cerebrovascular accident
Which of the following are types of lipoprotein?
VLDL, LDL, HDL, VHDL
Which item below is not a recognized criteria for diagnosing Metabolic Syndrome?
Waist circumference greater than 40 inches for women
About what percentage of American adults have hypertension?
25%
Kidney function includes which of the following?
Maintain pH, maintain water, maintain salt, maintain blood volume
Which of the following are recognized major nephron function?
Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion, Excretion
How many stages of chronic kidney disease are recognized?
5
Which is a kidney tone type?
Calcium, struvite, uric acid, xanthine
Following surgery there is an increased need for protein. Which is a valid reason?
Building tissue for wound healing
Controlling shock
Resisting infection
Controlling edema
A good definition of Parenteral would be
nourishment through small peripheral veins or large central vein
Which of the following are symptoms of Dumping Syndrome
Cramping and feeling of fullness, rapid pulse wave of weakness and cold sweating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
Anorexia patients exhibit which signs
eating very little food, exercising compulsively, hiding and storing food, withdrawing from fiends and family
Which items below would fit the profile of a Bulimic?
Manifest impulsive-behavior, predisposed to becoming overweight, tried frequent weight-reduction diets as a teen
Even if one tries to vomit out their meals, what percentage if the calories are absorbed?
33-75%
How many Calories are there in one gram of protein?
4
Disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
Two monosacchardies
All of the following are true about sports drinks except
They inhibit performance during short duration activities
A regular physical activity program should include all of the following except
A frequency of 2 times per week
Best exercise for overweight people
Bicycling
Joe loses 7 pounds during basketball practice. How many cups of water must he consume?
7x3 = 21
Which of the following supposedly speeds the removal of lactic acid from contracting muscles?
Bicarbonate loading
Best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced
weight before and after workout
Preserve iron status, a female athlete should do all of the following except
Take iron supplements regularly
Do: take blood hemoglobin levels, iron if anemic, iron-fortified cereals
A preevent meal should
low in fiber, high in carbs, moderate in protein
Protein intake for athletes
most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs
Protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should ___g per kg body weight
1.5-1.8
Carbohydrate loading
involves tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carb intake
Athletes body fat level is too high, best weight loss
Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day
Anerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
up to 5 minutes
aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
2 minute to 4 hours
Difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis
The end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose is lactic acid
ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting
1 minute
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
Anaerobic glucose breakdown
Name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions
Adenosine triphosphate ATP
Not a benefit of physical fitness
Less muscle mass
Are: better sleep, less fat, lower blood pressure
Women bone less begins around
30
___ gives hardness to teeth and bones
Flouride
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above
140/90 mm Hg
A goiter may form as inadequate intake of
Iodide
____ are good copper source
Legumes
____ are mineral antioxidant reduce cancer risks
Selenium
___ are best food source of iron
Liver
Magnesiums primary function
Nerve and heart function
Sulfur from
Proteins
Milk is a poor source of
iron and vitamin C
RDA mineral you need in largest amount is
Calcium
Furnish the largest amount of calcium
1 ounce of cheese
99% of calcium is found in
bones and teeth
Diet high in salt by a health individual will
Increase urinary excretion of sodium
Not a role of minerals in the body
Provide 4 kcalories per gram
role: transfer of nerve impulses, body compounds, water balance
Men need _____ water intake per day
3.7 liters
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
Not true about regulation of fluid in the body
Thirst is a reliable indicator
Water constitutes ___ percent of body weight
50-70
Women need ___ water intake per day
2.7 liters
Most common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity
Gastric bypass
Not a way to estimate body fat
Body mass index
Margarets parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and regaining it. Aversion to exercise. Situation?
When she ends diet she regains body fat
Body fat content to define obesity, __ percent for women warrants obesity
35%
Body weight in kgrams divided by height squared in meters yields
Body mass index
Joe is getting his energy expenditure measured by direct calorimetry. 1 liter of water 15 deg Celcius final 2015 degrees Celsius. Kcalories?
2000 kcals
Bill expends 2500 kcals per day. Basal metabolism?
1500-1750 kcals
Method of determining energy expenditure: amount oxygen measured
indirect calorimetry
contribute to total energy expenditure except
Energy content of food
Do: basla, thermic, adaptive thermo
Not true about energy expenditure
fidgeting account for 40 percent
Antibiotic treatment of infection with the bacteria __ heals some stomach ulcers and prevents recurrence
Hpylori
Basal metabolism: energy ___
when resting but awake fasting
Basal metabolism:
60-70% total kcals by sedentary person
Constipation prevented by ?
Dietary fiber
Partially digested food that enters the small intestine from the stomach
Chime
Passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell
Area of higher to one of lower concentration
___ pH of the stomach
Acidic
____ of meal absorbed by time it leaves small intestine
95%
Not part of GI tract:
lungs
part: anus, colon, esophagus
Peristalsis refers to
Muscular movement of materials through GI tract
___ helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes
bile
___ produces bile
Liver
____ most digestion takes place
Small intestine
___ ring like muscles retard prevent backflow of food
Sphincters
Digestion begins in ___
Mouth
After digestion and absorption, circulatory system carries fat and fat soluble vitamins?
Lymphatic
___ large blood vessel first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transport to liver
Portal vein
Bone, cartilage, muscle, and nerves are considered
Tissues
Number os servings to consume from each My Pyramid group depends on persons
Age and calorie needs
___ regulates US food labeling
FDA food and drug admin
Nutrition label must be present on the product if
A claim is made about the health benefits of specific nutrient
Kate consume 1900 calories per day. She requires 1750 to meet daily energy, could leave to
Overnutrition
Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconcsious in her home. A dietician conducted a nutritional assessment noting the general appearance
Clinical examination
Dietary guidelines recommends
Being physically active each day
Jeff a triathlete visits a dietician to obtain sports nutrition advice. Ate for past 5 days.
Diet history
About the use of USDA My Pyramid?
Variety is key
Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of
A particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by number of calories in serving
USDA my pyramid children teens consume
3 cup of milk
USDA pyramid grain
3 oz of whole grain
RDA for nutrients generally are
Designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people
Cheerios 1 cup serving 25% of the ___ for iron
Daily Value
RDA:
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Adequate intakes AIBU
include nutrients of which there is not enough info on which to set RDAs
Nutrient density
Consume foods that have the most nutrition for their calories
___ measurements of height weight body circumference
Anthropometrics
Simple sugars...
promote tooth decay
Amylase....
digests starch
Lactose interolerance...
Lactase deficiency
____ fatty acid with one double bond
Monounsaturated
Triglyceride form of fats:
Fatty acids and glycerol
Hydrogenating fats:
change a liquid fat to solid fat
____ found in amino acids
Nitrogen
Proteins digested in ...
stomach and small intestine
Edma appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because
Blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues
Code book for synthesizing proteins
DNA
prevents food from entering trachea
Epiglottis
made of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance
Endocrine system
Lymphatic system ...
picks up and transports dietary lipid
Mucus in stomach ...
protects stomach cells from gastric juices
pretoein based substances enhance digestion chemical reactions more likely
enzymes
Villi:
surface area for absorption
Recurrent and more serious heartburn
gastroesophageal reflux disease
Large intestine absorbs
water and minerals
___ diagnosed with kidney disease
4,000,000
Dissatisfied with second weight loss clinic. 20% calorie restriction from 2500 kcal/day to
2000 kcal/day
Advertisement diet plan, how many calories one must change in order to lose 10 pounds of fat in a week?
5000 kcal/day for a week
One needs to lose weight, a slow approach is often recommended. by decreasing the calorie intake by 100 kcal/day for 5 weeks? how much will be lost?
1 Ibs
Method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off the by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber
Direct calorimetry
Student recommends tracking your daily calorie intakes to estimate the basal metabolism? which is true?
B and C
classmate does not understand BMR, EER and BMR difference
EER is not an accurate estimate of the energy needs one has. track daily calorie intakes
classmate understand EER is just an estimate of energy needs
Dietary habits, weight, height, BMI have not changed. 1500 kcal/day. EER what is true?
A and B
EER is estimate based on large population, daily caloric intake is adequate
Renal disease interferes with the normal capacity of nephrons
Filter waste products of body metabolism
Weight and BMI slowly increasing 2200 kcal/day. EER what is true?
Increase in physical activities can accomplish equilibrium or even negative energy balance and aid in weight loss