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The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the


What vitamin routinely is given by injection to all infants at birth?

Vitamin K

children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if

Parents eat breakfast with them

The label on a package of Cool Aid indicates that it contains vitamin C. The amount listed is a percentage of the

Daily Value

Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called


The most important dietary approach for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is to

Lose body fat

Which of the following includes all energy-yielding substances?

Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein

Breast milk contains approximately how many kcalories per quart?


The first trimester of pregnancy

is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus

The most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is


The best exercise for overweight people is


All of the following are recommended to help preschoolers eat vegetables except

Promise dessert when vegetables are eaten
-Show the child you like vegetables
-Offer new vegetables with familiar foods
-serve vegetables undercooked and crunchy

Cholesterol is found in all of the following except

Corn oil
-Cheddar cheese
-Sirloin steak

What is the composition of the triglyceride form of fats?

Fatty acids and glycerol

All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except

There is significant evidence that they are harmful
-Supplements of vitamin A can be dangerous
-Supplements commonly contain iron and folate
-Physicians routinely prescribe them

The childhood disease is due to a _____ deficiency.

Vitamin D

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the best age to introduce solid foods into the infant's diet is

4-6 months

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends which of the following?

Being physically active each day

Cardiovascular disease risk factors include

HDL cholesterol > 40 mg/dl

Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?


Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less

Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following except

Lie down after she eats
-Eat less fat
-Avoid spicy food
-Consume liquids between meals

A vegetarian who excludes animal flesh but consumes such products as milk and eggs is referred to as a(n)


Which of the following is true about lactation?

The major reason why women do not breast-feed is lack of information

Current factors that can influence American food habits negatively are

The time-oriented, hurried lifestyle to many meals eaten away from home

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?

Protects stomach cells from gastric juices

High protein diets may be harmful for

Those with kidney disease

The body stores excess protein as


Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ___ to ____ months

4 - 6 months

Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that

79 - 100 girls her age are taller than she is

To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?


Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

The body mass index

A vegetarian who eats only plant foods is a(n)


During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids - linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all the following except

A low-birth weight infant
-High blood pressure
-Diabetes during pregnancy
-Surgical complications

Lactose intolerance is caused by

Lactase deficiency

All of the following are advantages to breast-feeding except

Increased risk of developing food allergies
-Fewer gastrointestinal infections
-Fewer respiratory infections
-Decreased financial costs

The most active area for the absorption of nutrients into the body is the

Small intestine

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?


Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?

Portal vein

The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the extra calcium she needs is to consume

Low-fat milk and cheese

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

Two monosaccharides

Maggie has anorexia nerovsa and regualrly starves herself. She is likely to be in state of

Negative protein blance

The acronym RDA stands for

Recommended Dietary Allowance

Basal metabolism is the energy expended

When resting, but awake, and in a fasting state

What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?


Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?

Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrients needs

Which of the following is not a class of nutrient?


All of the following are true of high quality protein except

It provides 7 kcal/g of energy
-It contains all essential amino acids
-It can support body maintenance
-It can support body growth

For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?


Approximately what percentage of obese children become obese adults?


Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system

To block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat

The new WHO growth standards stress that ____ is the biological norm for infant nutrition


The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

Vitamin D

During each fedding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?

Fat increases

Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?


Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice and dirt is known as


A saturated fatty acid contains

No double bonds

The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is


An adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the immune system is

A food intolerance

Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food


A function of the large intestine is to absorb?

Water and minerals

The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called


Which of the following statements is true?

Most overweight infants become normal weight preschoolers

All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except

The number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body
-The storage capacity for fat depends on both fat cell number and fat cell size
-The number increases when storage capacity has reached its limit
-The body's ability to store fat is limitless

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic

Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ___ to develop

Nervous system

Extra kcalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?

2nd and 3rd

Which of the following is true about the lymphatic system?

It is important for transporting fat-soluble nutrients

High-fiber diets are

Not recommended for infants

Which statement about vitamins is true?

Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

The vitamin that prevents beriben is


Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US, after ____

heart disease

___ tumors stay in one place


Which of the following is associated with increased cancer risk?

BBQed foods

Which of the following are the "Five things you should remember about preventing cancer"?

Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Discover the pleasure of physical activity
Stay tobacco free
Enjoy a low-fat diet

Diabetes is the __ leading cause of death from disease in the U.S.


Which type of diabetes has the following symptoms:
-Caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells
-Can occur at any age
-Patients require exogenous insulin (injections or pumps)

Type 1

Which is a symptom of Diabetes?

Increased thirst
Increased urination
Increased hunger
Unusual weight change

Which is not a key hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans?


Which is not a key effect of Insulin?

Promotes breakdown of tissue fat and protein
-Stimulates changes of glucose to fat for storage as body fat
-Helps transport glucose into cells
-Helps change glucose to glycogen and store it in liver, muscles
-Influences burning of glucose for energy

A criteria for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is

Fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl

Which of the following are an element of a therapy plan for diabetes?

diet, exercise, ensuring adequate insulin activity, controlling stress

What is another name for a stroke?

Cerebrovascular accident

Which of the following are types of lipoprotein?


Which item below is not a recognized criteria for diagnosing Metabolic Syndrome?

Waist circumference greater than 40 inches for women

About what percentage of American adults have hypertension?


Kidney function includes which of the following?

Maintain pH, maintain water, maintain salt, maintain blood volume

Which of the following are recognized major nephron function?

Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion, Excretion

How many stages of chronic kidney disease are recognized?


Which is a kidney tone type?

Calcium, struvite, uric acid, xanthine

Following surgery there is an increased need for protein. Which is a valid reason?

Building tissue for wound healing
Controlling shock
Resisting infection
Controlling edema

A good definition of Parenteral would be

nourishment through small peripheral veins or large central vein

Which of the following are symptoms of Dumping Syndrome

Cramping and feeling of fullness, rapid pulse wave of weakness and cold sweating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

Anorexia patients exhibit which signs

eating very little food, exercising compulsively, hiding and storing food, withdrawing from fiends and family

Which items below would fit the profile of a Bulimic?

Manifest impulsive-behavior, predisposed to becoming overweight, tried frequent weight-reduction diets as a teen

Even if one tries to vomit out their meals, what percentage if the calories are absorbed?


How many Calories are there in one gram of protein?


Disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

Two monosacchardies

All of the following are true about sports drinks except

They inhibit performance during short duration activities

A regular physical activity program should include all of the following except

A frequency of 2 times per week

Best exercise for overweight people


Joe loses 7 pounds during basketball practice. How many cups of water must he consume?

7x3 = 21

Which of the following supposedly speeds the removal of lactic acid from contracting muscles?

Bicarbonate loading

Best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced

weight before and after workout

Preserve iron status, a female athlete should do all of the following except

Take iron supplements regularly
Do: take blood hemoglobin levels, iron if anemic, iron-fortified cereals

A preevent meal should

low in fiber, high in carbs, moderate in protein

Protein intake for athletes

most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs

Protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should ___g per kg body weight


Carbohydrate loading

involves tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carb intake

Athletes body fat level is too high, best weight loss

Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day

Anerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting

up to 5 minutes

aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting

2 minute to 4 hours

Difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis

The end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose is lactic acid

ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting

1 minute

The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called

Anaerobic glucose breakdown

Name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions

Adenosine triphosphate ATP

Not a benefit of physical fitness

Less muscle mass
Are: better sleep, less fat, lower blood pressure

Women bone less begins around


___ gives hardness to teeth and bones


Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above

140/90 mm Hg

A goiter may form as inadequate intake of


____ are good copper source


____ are mineral antioxidant reduce cancer risks


___ are best food source of iron


Magnesiums primary function

Nerve and heart function

Sulfur from


Milk is a poor source of

iron and vitamin C

RDA mineral you need in largest amount is


Furnish the largest amount of calcium

1 ounce of cheese

99% of calcium is found in

bones and teeth

Diet high in salt by a health individual will

Increase urinary excretion of sodium

Not a role of minerals in the body

Provide 4 kcalories per gram
role: transfer of nerve impulses, body compounds, water balance

Men need _____ water intake per day

3.7 liters

Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less

Not true about regulation of fluid in the body

Thirst is a reliable indicator

Water constitutes ___ percent of body weight


Women need ___ water intake per day

2.7 liters

Most common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity

Gastric bypass

Not a way to estimate body fat

Body mass index

Margarets parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and regaining it. Aversion to exercise. Situation?

When she ends diet she regains body fat

Body fat content to define obesity, __ percent for women warrants obesity


Body weight in kgrams divided by height squared in meters yields

Body mass index

Joe is getting his energy expenditure measured by direct calorimetry. 1 liter of water 15 deg Celcius final 2015 degrees Celsius. Kcalories?

2000 kcals

Bill expends 2500 kcals per day. Basal metabolism?

1500-1750 kcals

Method of determining energy expenditure: amount oxygen measured

indirect calorimetry

contribute to total energy expenditure except

Energy content of food
Do: basla, thermic, adaptive thermo

Not true about energy expenditure

fidgeting account for 40 percent

Antibiotic treatment of infection with the bacteria __ heals some stomach ulcers and prevents recurrence


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