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members of the carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids are huge



a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers


a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers


any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions


a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds


dryness resulting from the removal of water

condensation reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule


a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars


any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule


any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule


a six-carbon sugar. a common example is glucose, fructose is a common isomer of glucose


Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is within the C-skeleton; fructose is an ex.


Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is at the end of a C-skeleton; glucose is an ex.


A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

glycosidic linkage

A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.


a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits, an isomer of glucose; it has the same chemical formula (C6 H12 O6) but its atoms are arranged differently

dehydration reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.


a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides


plant polysaccharide


animal polysacchairide


a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers


macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes


in the cell wall of hyphae, a polysaccharide that also makes up the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans, and other anthropods, Complex carbohydrate that is main component of fungi cell walls.


organisms whose cells lack a nucleus, unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA


contains an internal O=C-O- group

fatty acid

any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis


Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.

saturated fat

fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

unsaturated fat

fatty acid that have double bonds between the carbons and fats from plantes


fundamental component of biological membranes; biological membranes are fairly fluid and semi-permiable


precurser to acetylcholine and phospholipids, participates in aspects of homocystein metabolism




any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs

cell membrane

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell


an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver

enzymatic protiens

selective acceleration of chemical reactions

structural proteins


storage proteins

storage of amino acids

hormonal proteins

coordination of an organisms activity

receptor proteins

response of a cell to chemical stimuli

contractile and motor proteins


defensive proteins

protection against disease

transport proteins

transport of other substances


polymers of amino acids


any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells

amino acids

Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy


substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed

non-polar amino acids

Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Less soluble in water (hydrophobic)

polar amino acids

Electron is shared, more frequently near one atom (hydrophilic), asparagine, threonine

electrically charged amino acids

One atom is more electronegative that another (hydrophilic)

peptide bond

the primary linkage of all protein structures


any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells

globular proteins

These proteins are small spheres with little to no water inside. They have hydrophobic amino acids in the inside and hydrophilic R groups on the outside.

fibrous proteins

(Structural proteins) Insoluble in water; chief building materials of the body; usually used to construct connective tissues, tendons, bone matrix and muscle fiber.

four levels of protein structure

Primary(1') Structure, Secondary(2') Structure, Tertiary(3') Structure, Quaternary(4') Structure

primary structure

The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.

secondary structure

The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.

alpha helix

A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.

beta pleated sheet

One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypepetide chain folds back and forth. two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.


A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.


a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color

hydrophobic interaction

Interaction commonly occurring in tertiary structure where the nonpolar ends of the protein cluster together in the core of the protein, away from the water (allowing protein to be reshaped)

tertiary structure

Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.

disulfide bridges

form where two cysteine monomers, amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains are brought close together by the folding protein

quaternary structure

The paticular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristc three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.

sickle cell disease

caused by codominant alleles; abnormal red blood cells that get stuck in blood vessels


For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.


Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins.


a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids

x-ray crystallography

can determine arrangement of atoms

deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

ribonucleic acid

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes, (RNA) part of the genetic material that organisms inherited from their parents


Rna and Dna are polymers called___. A sugar-phosphate backbone is formed btween the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another and the nitrogenous bases extend from these

eukaryotic cell

A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.

messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell


a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil


Adenine and Guanine, nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine


a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid


five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

double helix

The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.


(especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed, the two strands of DNA in a double helix are ________, meaning they are oriented in opposite directions to each other


Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases

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