How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

82 terms

Chapter 5 the structure and function of the large biological molecules

STUDY
PLAY
members of the carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids are huge
macromolecules
polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
dehydration
dryness resulting from the removal of water
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
monosaccharide
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars
triose
any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule
pentose
any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule
hexose
a six-carbon sugar. a common example is glucose, fructose is a common isomer of glucose
ketose
Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is within the C-skeleton; fructose is an ex.
aldose
Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is at the end of a C-skeleton; glucose is an ex.
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
glycosidic linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
fructose
a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits, an isomer of glucose; it has the same chemical formula (C6 H12 O6) but its atoms are arranged differently
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
polysaccharide
a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
starch
plant polysaccharide
glycogen
animal polysacchairide
cellulose
a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
chitin
in the cell wall of hyphae, a polysaccharide that also makes up the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans, and other anthropods, Complex carbohydrate that is main component of fungi cell walls.
prokaryotes
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus, unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA
ester
contains an internal O=C-O- group
fatty acid
any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
triacylglycerol
Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fat
fatty acid that have double bonds between the carbons and fats from plantes
phospholipids
fundamental component of biological membranes; biological membranes are fairly fluid and semi-permiable
choline
precurser to acetylcholine and phospholipids, participates in aspects of homocystein metabolism
phosphate
PO4^3-
steroid
any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cholesterol
an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver
enzymatic protiens
selective acceleration of chemical reactions
structural proteins
support
storage proteins
storage of amino acids
hormonal proteins
coordination of an organisms activity
receptor proteins
response of a cell to chemical stimuli
contractile and motor proteins
movement
defensive proteins
protection against disease
transport proteins
transport of other substances
polypeptides
polymers of amino acids
protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells
amino acids
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
catalysts
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
non-polar amino acids
Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Less soluble in water (hydrophobic)
polar amino acids
Electron is shared, more frequently near one atom (hydrophilic), asparagine, threonine
electrically charged amino acids
One atom is more electronegative that another (hydrophilic)
peptide bond
the primary linkage of all protein structures
protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells
globular proteins
These proteins are small spheres with little to no water inside. They have hydrophobic amino acids in the inside and hydrophilic R groups on the outside.
fibrous proteins
(Structural proteins) Insoluble in water; chief building materials of the body; usually used to construct connective tissues, tendons, bone matrix and muscle fiber.
four levels of protein structure
Primary(1') Structure, Secondary(2') Structure, Tertiary(3') Structure, Quaternary(4') Structure
primary structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
secondary structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
alpha helix
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
beta pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypepetide chain folds back and forth. two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
collagen
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
hemoglobin
a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color
hydrophobic interaction
Interaction commonly occurring in tertiary structure where the nonpolar ends of the protein cluster together in the core of the protein, away from the water (allowing protein to be reshaped)
tertiary structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
disulfide bridges
form where two cysteine monomers, amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains are brought close together by the folding protein
quaternary structure
The paticular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristc three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
sickle cell disease
caused by codominant alleles; abnormal red blood cells that get stuck in blood vessels
denaturation
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
chaperonin
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins.
polypeptide
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
x-ray crystallography
can determine arrangement of atoms
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
ribonucleic acid
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes, (RNA) part of the genetic material that organisms inherited from their parents
polynucleotides
Rna and Dna are polymers called___. A sugar-phosphate backbone is formed btween the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another and the nitrogenous bases extend from these
eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
pyrimidine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
purines
Adenine and Guanine, nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
deoxyribose
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
antiparallel
(especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed, the two strands of DNA in a double helix are ________, meaning they are oriented in opposite directions to each other
nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases