1. abnormal new growth of tissue with no useful purpose 2. may harm host 3. could be tumor but may not be
1. usually harmless, non-malignant 2. encapsulated 3. doesn't spread or invade other tissues 4. Ex. moles, skin tags
1. Cancerous tumor 2. Capable of spread & invasion of other tissues far removed from the site of origin 3. Cells abnormal (chromosomal abnormalities), harmful, serve no purpose
- study of the distribution & determinants of diseases and health problems in specific populations - location of people with disease
# of deaths that occur in population at risk in a specific period
Incidence Rate ****
# of new cases occurring in a given population at risk during a specific time (ex: certain age group)
Relative Survival Rate
5 yr survival marker; decreased probability that condition will recur or spread
no evidence of disease and same life expectancy as person who never had cancer
can be benign
Neoplasm Prefixes: sarc-
muscle or fat
Neoplasm Prefixes: hemangi-
Neoplasm Prefixes: lymph-
Neoplasm Prefixes: neur-
Neoplasm Prefixes: aden-
sarco / blast / carcin
What are Carcinogens & what are three types?
substance that causes a change in cell structure
1. radiation = small doses affect cells. Ex. radon, UV, radium, ionizing 2. viruses = Epstein Barr, Hep B, Hep C, HPV 3. chemical agents = Asbestos, tobacco, alcohol
What are seven predisposing factors?
1. Age >60, advanced age is the single most important 2. Geographic location = nuclear plants, florida 3. Occupation = asphalt 4. Heredity 5. Diet = high fat, red meat, low fiber 6. Immune function 7. Precancerous lesions = moles
Immunity Theory? (3)
1. cancer cells continually form in the body 2. immune system recognizes & destroys non-self cells 3. breakdown of immune system allows cancer cells to reproduce
What is the Double Hit Theory?
Have to have at least 2 predisposing factors burden the immune system
1. DNA damaged by chemical, physical, biological agents 2. irreversible event that can lead to cancer development
What is Latency Period? (4)
1. abnormal cell does not grow 2. length varies 3. if found in this period = carcinomainstitu: abnormal cells just sitting there 4. time btw a cell's initiation & the development of overt tumors
What is Promotion?
1. substances enhance growth of abnormal/cancer cell
What is Progression? (3)
1. morphologic & phenotypic changes in cells 2. continued change of a cancer, making it more malignant over time 3. 1cm in size crowds out healthy tissue - new capillaries & blood supply shift nutrients to cancer cell killing normal cell near by
What is Metastasis?
cells break away from original group & establishing remote colonies
What is the normal cell cycle?
1. carefully controlled 2. when one cell dies, a new one is produced
What is differentiation?
- genetically identical cells assume same function Ex. muscle cells
What is contact inhibition?
- contact with another cell allows growth in a single layer until edge is reached
What is tight adherence?
- stick together
What is apoptosis?
- die when function diminishes - programmed cell death - cancer cells do not recognize apoptosis
What is Primary Prevention & four ways of prevention?
* preventing it, the use of strategies to prevent the actual occurrence of cancer
- avoid carcinogens = sunscreen, don't smoke - modify risk factors = alcohol, fat red meat, sexual partners - remove at risk tissue - chemoprevention
What is Secondary Prevention? ***
- Early identification through screening Ex. HPV vaccine, sunscreen, quit smoking