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43 terms

texes EC-6: competency 001 (oral language)

STUDY
PLAY
imitation
learning strategy that young children use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, etc
phonology
study of the sound system of a language
phonemes
basic units of sound
morphology
set of rules for combining sounds into meaningful units
syntax
the structure of a phrase or sentence; entails the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language
semantics
the meanings of words and phrases
pragmatics
consists of rules for effective communication in different contexts; describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication.
connotation
the implied meaning of words and ideas
denotation
the literal meaning of words and ideas
communication disorders
Voice Disorders, Fluency Disorders, Articulation Problems, Language Processing Disorders
phonation
voice disorder; describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration. ex: hoarseness or extreme breathlessness
resonance
voice disorder; abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. ex: hyper-nasal sounds.
stuttering
fluency disorder; false starts or inability to produce intended sounds
cluttering
fluency disorder; occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.
lisping
articulation problem; when children produce the /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth
language processing disorders
generally caused by brain-based disturbance called aphasia
receptive aphasia
creates problems with listening comprehension and retrieval of words from memory.
ex: repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.
expressive aphasia
damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluency.
ex: speech produce is very slow. the sentences produced are generally very short and contain only necessary features to convey message.
global aphasia
brain bases disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of language.
ex: produce minimal speech and comprehension is very limited.
language processing disorders
receptive, expressive, and global aphasia.
activities to promotes oral communication
dramatic play, language play, show and tell, puppet show, pair interview , presenting, reading to students, songs, rhymes, games, thinking out loud.
formal assessments of oral language development
peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT) and test of oral language development (TOLD)
receptive language
ability to understand a message
ex: sensitivity to phonemic distinctions in words, comprehension of word meanings, and awareness of pragmatic conventions.
expressive language
the ability to express oneself in language--to produce words, to choose correct vocabulary and grammar, and to follow pragmatic conventions.
scaffolding
refers to the adults help children learn complex skills such as language; providing a structure in which the children can develop his/her language skills.
english language learner
children whose native language is not english and whose oral language skills are less advanced than their classmates.
bilingual education
academic content is provided in the student's native language at the same time that English language instruction is given
english-as-a-second-language (ESL)
placed in an English class with other English learners who speak a variety of different languages
language experience approach (LEA)
instructional method that integrates oral and written language skills.
ex: often focuses on shared experiences, such as a field trip or special event.
textless books/wordless books
help students connect spoken and printed language
consist of sequences of pictures but no print.
Asking young children to read textless books allows them to practice...what?
vocabulary and to apply merging appreciation of narrative.
dialogic reading
conversations between a teacher a teacher and students about a story that has just been read.
word walls
lists of words that students are currently learning in places that the entire class can see
help students connect spoken and printed language by?
textless books, dialogic reading, and word walls.
critical listening
understand and evaluate he content of what someone is saying
listening for appreciation
used to appreciate and enjoy the message
active listening
focusing attention on a speaker through participation in activities relevant to the message

ex: helping students retell simple stories, paraphrase important instructions, and ask appropriate questions when teacher/ other student is making a presentation.
ways to develop listening skills
critical listening, listening for appreciation, active listening.
metacognition
ability to reflect on and evaluate one's own thought process.

ex: understanding that taking notes can help one remember, people draw different conclusions from same evidence
metalinguistic knowledge
from of metacognition that pertains to the ability to reflect on and evaluate language.

ex: evaluate a spoken message on dimensions such as clarity, relevance, and effectiveness.
basal reader
collection of stories and other materials that is appropriate for students of a particular grade level.
thematic units
designed to teach several subjects through a sustained focus on a particular topic.
morphemes
smallest representation of meaning

ex: cars is made up of two morphemes: basic root word and the plural morpheme "s"