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An animal digestive tract that consist of two openeings (a mouth and anus) is called

the alimentary canal

Evolutionary movement of aquatic vertebrates to land involved an intermediate individual that

had both gills and lungs

The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the

vital capacity

Multipotent stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones

can differentiate into all blood cells and paletets

Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?


As blood moves away from the heart towards thw tissue, the relative size of blood vessels ___, the blood pressure ____, and the velocity of blood flow ______.


An organ represents a higher level of structure than the tissue composing it and performs functions that the tissue cannot perform alone. This is an ecample of the principle eof

emergent properties.

Geckos are able to walk up walls and across ceilings because of

the many hairs on their toes that form bonds with the walls and ceiling surface

The tongue does all of the following except

secrete saliva

During gas exchange, body cells

release CO2 and take up O2

Although birds and mammals descended from the different ancestors, they both have a four-chambered heart. This is a result of

convergent evolution

When you exhale, you

remove CO2 from the body

During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?


As adult humans red blood cells are formed in the

bone marrow

The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the

respiratory surface

The location of the heartss pacemaked is a specialized region of cardia muscle called the

sinotrial node

Digestion is the

breaking doen of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb

Structure in the living world is organized into heirarchical levels. Which of the following lists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?

molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If this individual is able to adjust the salt concentration of its body fluids, its salt concentration will have

slight fluctuations that are kept within a narrow range

The structural and functional unit of nervous tissue is the


In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine

Which amino acid is found in corm but not in beans (In a figure)?


The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increases the fish's ability to

extract exygen from the water

Which of the following cells are phagocytes?

monocyte and neutrophils

Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine?

nervous tissue

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes lead initially to the urgr to breathe?

rising carbon dioxide concentration

Tuna, sharks, and penguins have adapted to their environment by becoming fast swimmers. They are fast swimmers due to the convergent evolution of

their streamlined, tapered bodies.

Smooth muscle propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called


Which of the following mechanisms helps to prevent the gastric juice from destroying the stomach lining?

generation through mitosis of new cells to replace the stomach lining

Interestingly, most herbivorous animals do not have the ability to digest the cellulose in plants. However, in the absence of this ability, they have evolved a mechanism that allows them to
survive despite eating only plant matter, namely

digestion by symbiotic microorganisms

Which of the following factors contributes to the flow of blood in veins?

skeletal muscle contractions

Smooth muscle is responsible for

Involuntary body activities

Witin the lungs, gas exchange occurs across


which of the following is an example of a tissue?

heart muscle

What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?

to produce digestive enzymes and alkaline solution

Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because

it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure

Digestion takes place in specialized compartments for all of the following reasons except that

the environment of digestion must protect the food.

Connective tissue is different from the other major tissue typed in that

the cell are sparself scattered through a nonliving matix

Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system

transporting nutrients to body cells

Stratified squamous epithelium is well-suited for

lining body surfaces sublect to abrasion.

In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ____ just before entering the right atrium.

superior vena cava

Absorption of water is major function of the


What kind of connective tissue has an extracellular liquid matrix called plasma?


Which of the following statement regarding animals is false?

Animals that extract food particles suspended in the surrounding water are called fluid feeders

The secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible for producing

hydrochloric acid

Which of the following is a part of the immune system?

bone marrow

The structure of the esophagus fits its function in that

it has smooth muscle for perstalsis.

Most homeostasis depends on

negative feedback control

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