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113 terms

Psych 260 quiz4

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In addition to partial paralysis after a stroke, Mr. V showed a loss of
understanding of the long term implications of his stroke
The text author asserts that__have key consequences for survival and reproduction
emotional behaviors
The major components of an emotional response include
behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions.
The autonomic component of an emotional response functions to
mobilize energy for vigorous movement
Most of the research on emotions has focused on
anger and fear
The emotional components that comprise fear are integrated by neurons within the
Amygdala
Neurons within the amygdala are activated by
detection of emotionally relevant stimuli
Activation of the ___ nucleus of the amygdala elicits an emotional response
central
Behavioral, autonomic and hormonal emotional responses are elicited by activation of the
central nucleus of the amygdala
Infusion of excitatory amino acid glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala of a rat would be expected to elicit
behavioral signs of fear
Inactivation of the central amygdaloid nucleus results in
reduced blood levels of stress hormones
Exposure to ___ will automatically produce a fear reaction in most species
loud unexpected noises
Infusion of __ into the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to promote fear and agitation
glutamate
An intact __ is required in order for a conditioned emotional response to alter blood pressure
lateral hypothalamus
In experiments by LeDoux and others on classically conditioned emotional responses in rats, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by
foot shock
Rats previously exposed to a tone followed by a brief intense electrical shock will show ___ when subsequently exposed to the tone(without shock).
behavioral arrest
A species-typical defensive response for a rat would include
freezing of motor movements
the expression of emotional responses is inhibited by inputs from the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Humans report fear upon electrical stimulation of the
amygdala
A formal definition of aggressive behaviors
includes those behaviors involved in predation
Which of the following is true of threat behaviors
threat behaviors resolve conflicts without hurting the involved organism
The drug __ would be expected to inhibit aggression
fluoxetine(Prozac)
elevated brain levels of the transmitter __ function to inhibit aggression
serotonin
Electrical stimulation of the ventral periaqueductal gray PAG matter in the car can produce
predatory behavior
Electrical stimulation of the DORSAL periaqueductal gray matter in the cat produces
defensive rage behavior
Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of serotonin metabolite 5-HIAAA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information
Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels are unlikely to be alive ten years from now
a human male who has a long record of assult, arson, murder, would be expected to show __ levels of __ in his cerebrospinal fluid
reduced; 5-HIAA
The ___ cortical region plays a key role in the analysis of social situations.
ventromedial prefrontal
Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior in part as a result of widespread damage to his
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Recent research suggests that emotions may play the most important role in the formation of
moral judgements
functional imaging studies of the brain during decision-making suggest that personal moral dilemmas strongly activate the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
a general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to
dampen or inhibit emotional reactions
____ is an example of a personal moral dilemma
throwing another person onto a grenade in order to save a larger group
The combination of inadequate activation of the _____ and enhanced activation of the___ may result in excessive anger that results in harm to other persons.
prefrontal cortex; amygdala
The prefrontal cortex is___ by ___ projection neurons
activated; serotonergic
Impulsive aggression may reflect___, which can be treated with___.
impaired serotonin prefrontal activity; fluoxetine
Aggressive behavior is most strongly related to
reproduction
Aggressiveness is reduced in adult rodents by castration wheras injections of testosterone reinstate adult male rodent aggression. These effects are an example of an ____ hormone effect.
activational
Intermale aggression will be reinstated in castrated male rats after implants of testosterone into the
medial preoptic area
A male mouse housed alone in a cage will readily attack a male mouse placed into the home cage, but will not attack a female mouse, Which of the following is a key factor as to weather the resident male mouse decides to attack or not attack the strange male mouse?
the mouse must be able to detect male pheromones
Intermale aggression is reduced in
mice whose vomeronasal nerves have been surgically damaged
A female given daily injections of ___ for two weeks is more likely than a placebo-treated female to fight with a strange female mouse
testosterone
A female rodent exposed to high levels of testosterone while in the mothers uterus is likely to
show more interfemale aggression as an adult
Prenatal exposure to androgens
increases aggressive behavior in all studied species
Studies of hormone status and antisocial behavior in the US military veterans suggest that higher levels of antisocial activity are noted in
low socioeconomic status men with high testosterone levels.
An example of an environmental effect on testosterone secretion would be when
losing a tennis match results in lowered blood levels of testosterone
The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by the observation that
the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures
Darwin argued that the expression of emotion in humans
evolved from similar expressions in other animals
A key function of the right hemisphere is
the recognition of emotions
The ability to recognize emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the
right hemisphere
PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice increased the activity of the
right frontal cortex
PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion on the basis of word meaning increased the activity of the
left and right frontal cortex
The observation that a person with ____ cannot understand speech but can infer emotion from ___ suggests that word recognition and emotional vocal recognition are independent functions.
pure word deafness; tone of voice
Because the amygdala receives input from cortical and subcortical sources, a person made blind by cortical damage
can recognize facial emotional expression
Damage to the amygdala can impair recognition of ____ but not ___.
facial emotion expression; recognition of emotion using tone of voice.
rapid recognition of facial emotional expression is mediated by signals carried by the ____ system
magnocellular
The emotion of disgust involves activation of neurons within the
insular cortex
People with volitional facial paresis are unable to
voluntarily move facial muscles
With regard to facial emotional expression,
negative emotional expressions are more intensely expressed on the left side of the face
The unique aspect of patient S.P. is that after removal of her right amygdala
she was unable to recognize her own facial emotional expressions
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion
sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs
Which of the following results from studies of people with spinal cord injuries supports james-lange theory of emotion?
people who could not feel reactions from most of their bodies reported that they no longer felt intense emotions.
Studies by Ekman and colleauges suggest that
simulated facial emotional expression changes sympathetic activity
Narcolepsy is predominantly a problem involving
an attack of sleep during the day
Which of the following is true of sleep
Humans spend about a third of their life asleep
The various stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
changes in the electrical activity of the brain
The ___ is an instrument used to record electrical potentials from muscles during sleep
electromymogram
The ___ pattern of the EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency, low voltage waves
beta
The observation that a persons brain shows beta wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because
this brian wave pattern also appears during sleep
The translation between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ___ waves in the sleep record
theta
The theta brain wave pattern is characterized by changes in frequency of electrical activity of
3.5-7.5HZ
You are watching a sleep record of a person whose record contains 85% delta wave activity. Your best guess is that this person is
in stage 4 of slow wave sleep
A key aspect of slow-wave sleep is the presence of ____ Hz oscillations comprised of a down state followed by an up state
1.0
___ will occur soon after the appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record.
paradoxical sleep
During the ___ state of the slow-wave sleep record, the neurons of the cortex are ___.
down;silent
Another name for sleep stages 3 and 4 is ____ sleep
slow wave
Sleep stages 1-4 are termed ___, whereas stages 3-4 are referred to as___.
non-REM sleep; slow wave sleep
Which of the following is a key characteristic of REM sleep
rapid eye movements
Which of the following is a reason as to why sleep stage 4 is considered to be the deepest sleep stage
only very loud stimuli will awaken a person from stage 4 sleep
Which of the following is a key characteristic of non-REM sleep
various forms of slow wave brain activity
A single cycle of nonREM and REM sleep lasts
about 90 minutes
Which of the following is true of human sleep cycles
as the night goes on the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle
Humans show which pattern of blood flow and mental activity during REM sleep
Cerebral blood flow is high in the visual association cortex and low in the frontal cortex
The predictable changes in blood flow to the male genitals that occur during ____ can be a useful clinical indicator of ____.
REM sleep; impotence
Which of the following terms belong together
slow wave sleep;moderate muscle tonus
Which of the following represents a mental state that accompanies slow-wave sleep?
nightmares
During REM sleep, there is a high level of activity within the
visual association cortex
About ____ percent of the population experiences insomnia as a persistent problem while ___ percent experiences this on occasion
9; 25
Insomnia is defined
in relation to a persons particular sleep needs
A person who does not feel rested after sleeping a 15 hr night
probably does not need more sleep
Which of the following is true of sleeping medications
sleeping pills can lead to daytime hangovers
chronic sleep deprivation can lead to
obesity and diabetes
A buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood is a characteristic of the sleep disorder known as
sleep apnea
A key symptom of human narcolepsy relates to
sleeping during the day; excessive daytime sleepiness
A person who exhibits sudden paralysis but remains conscious may be suffering from
an episode of cataplexy
A common cause that elicits an episode of cataplexy is
strong emotions or physical exertion
____ refers to the vivid dreams that may occur during sleep paralysis
hypnagogic hallucination
The notion that narcolepsy involves faulty brain regulation of sleep is supported by the observation that
narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state
In the narcolepsy example given in the text, the dog developed cataplexy while
sniffing food
Human narcolepsy
involves an absence of orexin from CSF in most narcoleptics
A genetic mutation of the hypocretin gene in mice results in
symptoms of narcolepsy
The occurrence of sleep attacks in narcolepsy can be alleviated by drugs that
act as catecholamine agonists
Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep are effectively treated by drugs that
facilitate both serotonin and catecholamine activity
A key symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder is
a lack of paralysis during REM sleep
The disorder known as _____ shares common attributes with those of narcolepsy
depression
The symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder are opposite to those noted in
cataplexy
An effective treatment for REM sleep behavior is the administration of
the benzodiazepine drug clonazepam
Somnambulism is synonymous with
sleepwalking
The symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder are exaggerated by administration of
antidepressant drugs
A person who experiences the sleep disorder symptom known as pavor nocturnus would be said to be
experiencing a night terror
Weight gain is a common outcome for a person suffering from
sleep-related eating disorder
The pattern of the dolphin is unique in that
sleep and waking occur indepenedently in the two hemispheres
Sleep deprivation in humans results in
perceptual distortions