The First Global Age (Ch. 2)

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Missionary
Someone who spreads Christian teachings.
Surplus
Extra
Culture Area
Region in which people share a similar way of life.
Kachina
Spirit who was represented by a masked Native American dancer.
Sachem
Specially chosen Iroquois council leader.
City-State
Large town that has its own government and controls the surrounding countryside.
Extended Family
Several generations living in one household.
Direct Democracy
Form of government in which ordinary citizens have the power to govern.
Republic
System of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them.
Feudalism
System of rule by lords who ruled their own lands but owed loyalty and military service to a monarch.
What civilizations emerged in present-day Mexico?
The Olmec, Mayas, and Aztecs emerged in present-day Mexico.
Name three Native American cultures that developed in North America and explain how the climate and resources influenced their style of housing.
Southwestern culture dwellings were pueblos that formed villages. The pueblos were made from sandstone and adobe, which the people found in their desert surroundings. The pueblos kept the Native Americans out of the desert heat by including rooms for many of their activities, such as cooking, sleeping, and religious ceremonies. Arctic cultures made pit houses that they dug into the round and covered with wood and animal skins. These dwellings sheltered and insulated them from the extreme cold of their climate. They also made shelters from driftwood. Cultures from the Northwest made planks from cedar trees to build houses. Because the Northwest climate is mild, they did not need heavily insulated housing.
Explain why the 1400's are known as the first global age and how the Arab world played an important role in this development.
The 1400's are known as the first global age because very distant places around the world were linked together by trade for the first time. Trade and travel increased during this time. Arab merchants were important for the growth of trade because Arabia was at the center of trade routes that linked the Mediterranean region in the West with Asia in the East and Africa in the South.
How did trade affect East Africa and West Africa before the 1500's?
Trade and travel helped spread Islam from the Middle East to North Africa, Spain, Persia, India, and beyond.
How did the Renaissance open new horizons for Europeans?
During this period, a great burst of learning occurred. More people learned to read and brought affordable books because of the invention of the printing press. People made discoveries in medicine, astronomy, and chemistry. Many great artists emerged.
Portuguese traders would have encountered _______________ as obstacles when traveling by land to India.
Mountain ranges
What did the formation of the League of the Iroquois change life for people in that culture group?
Warfare among the Iroquois nations ended.
What effect did the crusades have on Europe?
Europeans learned about new goods and ideas.
What is the prevailing theory of how people first reached the Americas?
They crossed a land bridge from Asia.
Olmec is the earliest known civilization is the __________________.
Americas
What set of rules of behavior derived from the Jewish tradition?
The Ten Commandments
Large houses with walls of stone or sun-dried brick were dwellings built by which culture?
Anasazi
Which early civilization created a writing system that included the concept of zero?
Mayan
What did the Romans pass along to later European cultures?
The Latin Language
The ______________ cultures had the similar characteristic of life that people honored the spirits of their ancestors.
African Village
Which Native American groups relied on the buffalo to meet their basic needs?
Cheyenne
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