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Which of the following would have been put outside the sphere of Mongol control at its height?


Which long distance trade network was stabilized in the period of historians term the Pax Mongolica?

Silk Roads

How were individuals selected for leadership in traditional Mongol society?

Merit systems based on demonstrated battlefield bravery

Which of the following doesn't belong in a list of military tactics or equipment employed by the Mongol empire?

Phalanx infantry formations

Which of the following was the most decisive change Mongol rule brought to Russia?

Migration of the center of power from Kiev to Moscow

Which of the following dealt the most devastating blow to the Abbasid caliphate in particular and Islamic civilization in general?

Mongol invasion of Mesopotamia

Which practices were employed by Kublai Khan and later Yuan dynasty rulers to ensure Mongol dominance in China?
1. Refusal to adopt Chinese civil service exams
2. Dependence on Muslims and nomads, not Confucian bureaucrats as next in command in the exercise of power
3. Stubborn clinging to nomadic habits and refusal to settle down and administer the new dynasty from one imperial city

1 and 2

Which group benefited from newfound higher status in the period of Mongol rule in China?


Which of the following terms for a political unit does not have the title of its leader as its root word?


Who led a short-lived reemergence of Central Asian nomadic dominance after the fall of the Mongol empire?

Timur-I Lang

Which military innovation did the Mongols expose Europeans to for the first time?


Which global force was the first to consistently integrate sub-Saharan Africa into a global network of exchange of goods and ideas?

Islamic civilization

Which of the following trade networks is limited to the confines of the African continent?


Which of the following does not belong in a list of features of a stateless society?

Mass slave revolt

Which of the following was the common unifying feature of sub-Saharan African societies in the postclassical era?

Common Bantu linguistic roots

As Islam spread, which of the following religious tendencies proved most durable across sub-Saharan Africa?

Ancestor worship

North Africa served as a bridge for Muslim influence to reach which region of the globe?


Since the classical era, which African region most accurately fits the description "gateway to the Middle East"?


Which indigenous African ethnic group adopted and vigorously spread Islam?


Which African society held on most fiercely to Christianity in the period of Islam's expansion in Africa?

Egypt and Ethiopia

Which of the following is not one of the ways Islam helped strengthen the authority of ruling elites as it spread across the African continent?

Conversion of a majority of commoners, creating a new basis for unity across all classes

Which of the following doesn't belong in a list of similarities in the process of how Islam spread to South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa?

A majority of the population in all three areas converted to Islam

Which religious schism stemmed from disputes over legitimate succession of leadership after the death of its key or founding figure?

Sunni and Shia

Which best qualifies as the largest durable tricontinental civilization?


Pre-Islamic Arab society is best characterized as

Pastoral nomadic

Which 2 Muslim cities retain the greatest symbolic or religious significance in Islam to this day?
1. Baghdad
2. Istanbul
3. Mecca
4. Timbuktu
5. Medina

3 and 5

Which 2 Muslim cities served as political and administrative centers of Muslim empire?
1. Baghdad
2. Istanbul
3. Mecca
4. Mogadishu
5. Medina

1 and 2

Upon whom did Muhammad depend most directly for economic support?

His wife, Khadija

Which of the following Arabic terms refers to the "community of the faithful"?


Which does not belong in this list of Sudanic states?


World historians associate the gold-salt trade most closely with which of the following trade routes?

Trans-Saharan routes

Which West African leadership figure is best known for his lavish fourteenth-century pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina?

Mansa Kankan Musa

Of the postclassical cities listed below, which was the most sophisticated?


Of the following lists, which places the rise and fall of key West African Sudanic states in proper chronological order?

Ghana, Mali, Songhay

Which set of practices carried out by devout Muslims in West Africa set their society apart from patterns established in the greater Islamic world?

Fewer restrictions on female dress code

Which choice best describes the origins of the Swahili language?

Arabic-Bantu mix

Which choice best describes the points of origin of goods one might find in a Swahili coast market?

Islamic, Indian, Chinese

Which of the following does not belong in a list of Swahili states of the East African coastline?


Which of the following materials is most associated with premodern sub-Saharan African artistic expertise?


Which neighboring empires faced the challenge of Umayyad expansion?
1. Roman
2. Gupta
3. Sassanid Persia
4. Byzantine
5. Han

3 and 5

Which choice best describes the eastern and western geographic limits of Islamic rule at its greatest extent during the period of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates?

Northwest India to Spain and Morocco

Who would not have qualified as part of the group labeled dhimmi in the Abbasid caliphate?


Which choice does not belong in a list describing the status of Muslim women in the early Islamic period?

Females and males both were allowed multiple spouses

In which postclassical civilization did women enjoy the highest status?


Which Muslim group overthrew the Umayyad dynasty and set up a new caliphate?


Which city became the capital of the Abbasid Empire and a center of what has been termed an Islamic golden age?


Which of the following areas of expertise does not belong in a list of characteristics common to the decline of both the Roman and Abbasid empires?

Imperial conversion to a new religion

Which of the following does not belong in a list of characteristics common to the decline of both the Roman and Abbasid empires?

Imperial conversion to a new religion

Which of the following does not belong in a list of similarities between Byzantine and dynastic Chinese political rule in the Tang era?

Focused initiative to expand territorial boundaries of the empire

Russian civilization emerged nearest to what modern day city?


Kievan Rus is unique in world history because

It was, in land area, the largest singles European state of the postclassical era

Which ideology gained influence in the period of disorder that followed the collapse of the Han dynasty?


Which dynasty built the largest land empire?


What is the name of the peninsula that served as the homeland of the Bynzantine and later, the Ottoman Empire?


What was the main global impact of the Crusades?
1. Western Europeans gained permanent bases in the Middle East
2. Islam split into the Sunni and Shia branches
3. Western Europeans were reintroduced to the knowledge and trade of a more civilized world
4. Christianity became the dominant religion in Jerusalem

1 only

The proliferation of technical advances and growing wealth of cities in the Abbasid Middle East was most closely matched by which contemporaneous area of civilization?

Song China

Which region, while under Muslim control, remained the least converted and integrated into the global civilization constructed in the era of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates?

South Asia

Which is most true about the staffing of the central administration of the imperial bureaucracy in the Tang-Song era?

The staff comprised individuals from prominent families

Which of the following statements best describes the status of the Buddhist faith in China after the persecutions of the Tang era?

Buddhism continued to exist, but on a much reduced scale

Neo-Confucianism incorporated ideas from which of the following belief systems that had grown in popularity in China?
1. Hinduism
2. Buddhism
3. Daoism
4. Islam

2 and 3

Which of the following is not a nomadic group that pressured dynastic rule at some point over the course of Chinese history?


Which intellectual or technological advancement cannot be traced to the era when Islamic civilization was at its height?

Steam-powered industry

Which of the following European regions felt the influence of Byzantine civilization in the postclassical era?

All the above

After the fall of the western portion of the Roman Empire, the official tongue in Constantinople shifted from Latin to which of the following?


The Byzantine Empire flourished as a crossroads of trade from which regions?

Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia

Which early Byzantine emperor had the longest lasting impact on civilization in the eastern Mediterranean and beyond?


Which of the following do historians most closely associate with the period of Western history known as the High Middle Ages?

Gothic architecture, the Crusades, and the rise of the Western university

Which of the following regions of Western Europe remained most insulated from the general trend toward disorder following the fall of the Roman Empire?


Which group was most likely to be literate in the period of European history often called the Dark Ages?


Which of the following terms matches this definition: "agricultural laborer tied to an estate with rights including military protection, heritable ownership of a plot of land, and owing obligations to share crop yields each season with his or her lord."


Which do historians point to as the key infrastructural development of the Tang-Song era?

Construction of the Grand Canal

Which practice dates from the Song era?

Foot binding

Which is not a native Chinese invention?

Steam-powered machinery

What is the title earned by students who passed the most difficult battery of Chinese civil service examinations?


Which is not an effect of the emergence of neo-Confucianism in the Tang-Song era?

Growing egalitarianism in gender roles

Which of the following possessed the greatest unified organizational capacity across the largest land area in Western Europe in the centuries immediately following the fall of the Roman Empire?

Catholic church

Which best characterizes the impact of the Magna Carta?

The principle of limited monarchy and representative bodies was established

Which of the following does not belong in a list of territorial expansionary moves by Western powers in the postclassical era?

Belgian penetration of the Congo

Which term do historians associate with medieval Western inquiry that sought to reconcile reason and religious faith and is most closely associated with the thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas?


Which body of water was the scene of trade involving merchant ships from the most diverse collection of civilizations in the postclassical era?

Indian Ocean

Despite extensive modeling of the Chinese imperial system, how did Japanese civilization hew to established tradition in the postclassical era?

Examination systems were not a part of the selection process for the imperial elite

Which of the following peoples would have been outside of the Chinese tribute system in East Asia in the Tang-Song era?


Where in the world did the literary form of the novel emerge?


Which contemporary society most closely mirrored feudal Japanese patterns of decentralized rule, an economy based on agricultural peasant labor, and emergence of a warrior elite following a distinct code of honor?

Western European

Which class played a central role in the Aztec economy and was more highly respected there than in contemporary China?


What is the name of the family units into which Aztec society was organized and accounted for by the state bureaucracy?


The regard with which the Inca held their monarch is analogous to which concepts we see in postclassical and early modern "Old World" civilizations
1. Constitutional monarchy
2. The Mandate of Heaven
3. The "divine right" of kings

2 and 3

Which classical civilizations were most famous for their extensive and centrally planned imperial road networks?
1. Roman Empire
2. Aztec Empire
3. Inca Empire
4. Mongol Empire

1 and 3

Which Inca city remains an important urban center in Peru today?


Which of the following does not belong in this list of Western postclassical literary works written in vernacular tongues?

Summa Theologica, St. Thomas Aquinas

Which of the following organizations grouped town dwellers by occupation, regulated apprenticeships, and upheld standards of workmanship?


By which route would medieval women have been most likely to find an alternative path in life outside of marriage?

Becoming a nun

What is the name of the conflict that consumed England and France in the late postclassical era?

Hundred Years' War

Of those listed below, which civilization existed in the most complete state of isolation in the period 600-1450?

Aztec Empire

Which of the following best describes the region where the Inca civilization flourished?

Andean highland and Pacific coast

Which was the most densely populated region of the Americas by the end of the postclassical era?

Valley of Mexico in Mesoamerica

Which of the following best characterizes similarities between Aztec and Inca civilizations?
1. Grew out of long development of preceding civilizations
2. Nobility formed the personnel of the state
3. Climatic and topographical setting

1 and 2

Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilization managed to construct monumental structures without which of the following?

Draft animals

Along with Venice in Italy, what other postclassical city is famous for its dependence on boats and canals as the primary means of urban transport?


All of the following statements concerning Aztec human sacrifice are accurate EXCEPT

Members of the Aztec ruling elite constituted the bulk of the individuals sacrificed

Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of factors preventing European powers from establishing anything more than a limited coastal settlement on the African continent in the period 1450-1750?

Inferior weapons technology

Which European power was first to establish large-scale slave-trading operations on the African continent for the purposes of export to plantations in the Americas?


In which century did the Atlantic slave trade peak in terms of numbers of Africans transported?


Which trend was most typical in slave-capturing coastal West African kingdoms, such as Dahomey, which supplied the Atlantic slave trade?

Increasing hierarchy, centralization and importance of military capacity including use of firearms

Which would be the LEAST typical trade transaction along Africa's northeast coast in the period 1450-1750?

Female slaves exported to a West Indies sugar plantation

The Afrikaners who settled in southern Africa traced their origin back to which European region?


What is the best way to characterize relations between the British and the Afrikaners after the British arrived in southern Africa in 1795?

Britain gains formal possession of the colony, but conflict persists with Afrikaners over land and expansion

Which is most true of the Middle Passage?

Mortality on marches to the African coast was higher than mortality on the ships

In which New World society did the slave population grow mainly through natural increase and not continued importation?

Southern British North American colonies

Where in the New World did slavery last the longest?


To which location was the greatest number of enslaved Africans transported?

Portuguese Brazil

Which Western power was first to ban its citizens from engaging in the slave trade?


Which Western tradition did the continuation of the Atlantic slave trade violate most?


Which monarchy constructed the largest contiguous land empire in history, second in size only to the Mongol Empire?


In which neighboring region(s) did the Russian Empire gain the most land during the Romanov dynasty?

Siberia and Central Asia

The shift of the Russian imperial capital to which city indicated a shift in orientation toward the West under the rule of Peter the Great?

St. Petersburg

Which of the following was unique to Russian industrial development in the czarist period?

Use of serf labor in factories

Which of the following best describes the attitude of Peter and Catherine the Great toward adopting change along Western lines?

It was a source of new ideas and methods to increase the power of ruling family at home and abroad

Which Russian territorial possession lay farthest from the center of power in St. Petersburg?


How did Russia tend to fit into the emerging global economy in the period 1450-1750?

As a supplier of grain, timber, fur, and other raw materials to the West

Which feature of the expanding Russian Empire in the period 1500-1800 was NOT a feature of expanding Western European empires in this period?

Expansion was mainly carried out over land and not sea

Which end result of industrial development was most important to Peter the Great?

Russian capacity to produce modern weapons

Which impulse for the colonization of North America was generally missing from colonization of the rest of the New World?

Freedom from religious persecution

The economic centrality of long-distance trade and the lack of long feudal traditions opened a path for which social class to rise to dominance relatively quickly in the New World?


How was racial hierarchy on the North American continent different from racial hierarchy in Spanish Latin America?

Intermarriage among Native American, African, and European populations was much less common

In which colonized region of the globe did Western cultural practices supplant existing cultural practices most completely after 1450?

North and South America

In which way did the Spanish colonies reproduce existing Iberian social structures?

Peninsulares sought to reproduce essentially feudal estates with indigenous labor filling the role of the Spanish serf

Which region of the New World saw the initial penetration by European explorers and subjugation of the Native population to slave labor?

Caribbean Islands

Which of the following accompanied the transition from conquest to settlement of the New World?

All of the above

Which New World commodity was of the greatest value to the Spanish monarchy?


What was the long-term impact of the massive influx of silver into the Spanish economy that resulted from its domination of the New World?
1. Inflation and unwise government spending
2. A permanent economic advantage over other European powers
3. Development of the most sophisticated banking system in the world

1 only

Which New World commodity was of the greatest value to the Portuguese monarchy in the early phases of the settlement of Brazil?


Which of the following choices places Latin America's racial hierarchy in the proper order, from lowest to highest, in status?

Native American/African slave, mestizo/mulatto, Creole, Peninsular

Which statement best characterizes the political situation in the West around 1450?

Small political units led by local and regional aristocrats were the rule, not the exception

Which label best characterizes the Italian Renaissance?

A cultural movement

Why did the Renaissance originate in the city-states of northern Italy?

Urban elites grown rich in trade hubs provided financial backing

Which of the following were targeted in the Spanish "Reconquista" of the late fifteenth century?

Muslims and Jews

Which event is most closely associated with the "reintroduction" of the West to the knowledge and trade of the Middle and Far East after the year 1000?

The Crusades

Which modern-day European nation projects farthest west off the Eurasian landmass and into the Atlantic Ocean?


Which European naval power is generally credited with breaking the grip on Atlantic maritime trade previously held by the Spanish monarchy?


Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of Catholic doctrines rejected by Martin Luther?

Acceptance of the Holy Trinity

Where did Luther's movement first take root?


Which group traces its roots to the Catholic Reformation, sometimes referred to as the Counter-Reformation?


Which social class experienced the most growth in absolute numbers as a result of the commercialization of the Western economy in the period 1450-1750?


Which movement from the following list establish a tradition of seeking answers to questions about nature through the application of reason and methodical investigation of the world?

Scientific Revolution

Which of the following movements applied reason to the problems of human affairs and can be understood as an extension of the Scientific Revolution into the field of politics?


Who is credited with bringing awareness of the heliocentric nature of the solar system into Western civilization?


Which of the following thinkers established the principles of objects in motion and defined the forces of gravity?


The following ideas from the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE can be attributed most directly to the influence of whom?

John Locke

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