Which leadership tradition dating from the earlier caliphates continued to impact Muslim empires such as the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals into the period 1450-1750?
1. Females in political power suffered crises of legitimacy due to stubborn gender norms
2. Lack of clear succession principles led to recurrent crises when replacing leaders
3. Dependence of Confucian bureaucrats undermined the authority of Islamic scholars