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200 terms

AP World 200

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following would have been put outside the sphere of Mongol control at its height?
Germany
Which long distance trade network was stabilized in the period of historians term the Pax Mongolica?
Silk Roads
How were individuals selected for leadership in traditional Mongol society?
Merit systems based on demonstrated battlefield bravery
Which of the following doesn't belong in a list of military tactics or equipment employed by the Mongol empire?
Phalanx infantry formations
Which of the following was the most decisive change Mongol rule brought to Russia?
Migration of the center of power from Kiev to Moscow
Which of the following dealt the most devastating blow to the Abbasid caliphate in particular and Islamic civilization in general?
Mongol invasion of Mesopotamia
Which practices were employed by Kublai Khan and later Yuan dynasty rulers to ensure Mongol dominance in China?
1. Refusal to adopt Chinese civil service exams
2. Dependence on Muslims and nomads, not Confucian bureaucrats as next in command in the exercise of power
3. Stubborn clinging to nomadic habits and refusal to settle down and administer the new dynasty from one imperial city
1 and 2
Which group benefited from newfound higher status in the period of Mongol rule in China?
Peasantry
Which of the following terms for a political unit does not have the title of its leader as its root word?
Nation
Who led a short-lived reemergence of Central Asian nomadic dominance after the fall of the Mongol empire?
Timur-I Lang
Which military innovation did the Mongols expose Europeans to for the first time?
Gunpowder
Which global force was the first to consistently integrate sub-Saharan Africa into a global network of exchange of goods and ideas?
Islamic civilization
Which of the following trade networks is limited to the confines of the African continent?
Trans-Saharan
Which of the following does not belong in a list of features of a stateless society?
Mass slave revolt
Which of the following was the common unifying feature of sub-Saharan African societies in the postclassical era?
Common Bantu linguistic roots
As Islam spread, which of the following religious tendencies proved most durable across sub-Saharan Africa?
Ancestor worship
North Africa served as a bridge for Muslim influence to reach which region of the globe?
Spain
Since the classical era, which African region most accurately fits the description "gateway to the Middle East"?
Egypt
Which indigenous African ethnic group adopted and vigorously spread Islam?
Berber
Which African society held on most fiercely to Christianity in the period of Islam's expansion in Africa?
Egypt and Ethiopia
Which of the following is not one of the ways Islam helped strengthen the authority of ruling elites as it spread across the African continent?
Conversion of a majority of commoners, creating a new basis for unity across all classes
Which of the following doesn't belong in a list of similarities in the process of how Islam spread to South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa?
A majority of the population in all three areas converted to Islam
Which religious schism stemmed from disputes over legitimate succession of leadership after the death of its key or founding figure?
Sunni and Shia
Which best qualifies as the largest durable tricontinental civilization?
Islamic
Pre-Islamic Arab society is best characterized as
Pastoral nomadic
Which 2 Muslim cities retain the greatest symbolic or religious significance in Islam to this day?
1. Baghdad
2. Istanbul
3. Mecca
4. Timbuktu
5. Medina
3 and 5
Which 2 Muslim cities served as political and administrative centers of Muslim empire?
1. Baghdad
2. Istanbul
3. Mecca
4. Mogadishu
5. Medina
1 and 2
Upon whom did Muhammad depend most directly for economic support?
His wife, Khadija
Which of the following Arabic terms refers to the "community of the faithful"?
Umma
Which does not belong in this list of Sudanic states?
Congo
World historians associate the gold-salt trade most closely with which of the following trade routes?
Trans-Saharan routes
Which West African leadership figure is best known for his lavish fourteenth-century pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina?
Mansa Kankan Musa
Of the postclassical cities listed below, which was the most sophisticated?
Timbuktu
Of the following lists, which places the rise and fall of key West African Sudanic states in proper chronological order?
Ghana, Mali, Songhay
Which set of practices carried out by devout Muslims in West Africa set their society apart from patterns established in the greater Islamic world?
Fewer restrictions on female dress code
Which choice best describes the origins of the Swahili language?
Arabic-Bantu mix
Which choice best describes the points of origin of goods one might find in a Swahili coast market?
Islamic, Indian, Chinese
Which of the following does not belong in a list of Swahili states of the East African coastline?
Timbuktu
Which of the following materials is most associated with premodern sub-Saharan African artistic expertise?
Ivory
Which neighboring empires faced the challenge of Umayyad expansion?
1. Roman
2. Gupta
3. Sassanid Persia
4. Byzantine
5. Han
3 and 5
Which choice best describes the eastern and western geographic limits of Islamic rule at its greatest extent during the period of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates?
Northwest India to Spain and Morocco
Who would not have qualified as part of the group labeled dhimmi in the Abbasid caliphate?
Animist
Which choice does not belong in a list describing the status of Muslim women in the early Islamic period?
Females and males both were allowed multiple spouses
In which postclassical civilization did women enjoy the highest status?
Islamic
Which Muslim group overthrew the Umayyad dynasty and set up a new caliphate?
Abbasids
Which city became the capital of the Abbasid Empire and a center of what has been termed an Islamic golden age?
Baghdad
Which of the following areas of expertise does not belong in a list of characteristics common to the decline of both the Roman and Abbasid empires?
Imperial conversion to a new religion
Which of the following does not belong in a list of characteristics common to the decline of both the Roman and Abbasid empires?
Imperial conversion to a new religion
Which of the following does not belong in a list of similarities between Byzantine and dynastic Chinese political rule in the Tang era?
Focused initiative to expand territorial boundaries of the empire
Russian civilization emerged nearest to what modern day city?
Kiev
Kievan Rus is unique in world history because
It was, in land area, the largest singles European state of the postclassical era
Which ideology gained influence in the period of disorder that followed the collapse of the Han dynasty?
Buddhism
Which dynasty built the largest land empire?
Tang
What is the name of the peninsula that served as the homeland of the Bynzantine and later, the Ottoman Empire?
Anatolia
What was the main global impact of the Crusades?
1. Western Europeans gained permanent bases in the Middle East
2. Islam split into the Sunni and Shia branches
3. Western Europeans were reintroduced to the knowledge and trade of a more civilized world
4. Christianity became the dominant religion in Jerusalem
1 only
The proliferation of technical advances and growing wealth of cities in the Abbasid Middle East was most closely matched by which contemporaneous area of civilization?
Song China
Which region, while under Muslim control, remained the least converted and integrated into the global civilization constructed in the era of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates?
South Asia
Which is most true about the staffing of the central administration of the imperial bureaucracy in the Tang-Song era?
The staff comprised individuals from prominent families
Which of the following statements best describes the status of the Buddhist faith in China after the persecutions of the Tang era?
Buddhism continued to exist, but on a much reduced scale
Neo-Confucianism incorporated ideas from which of the following belief systems that had grown in popularity in China?
1. Hinduism
2. Buddhism
3. Daoism
4. Islam
2 and 3
Which of the following is not a nomadic group that pressured dynastic rule at some point over the course of Chinese history?
Tibetan
Which intellectual or technological advancement cannot be traced to the era when Islamic civilization was at its height?
Steam-powered industry
Which of the following European regions felt the influence of Byzantine civilization in the postclassical era?
All the above
After the fall of the western portion of the Roman Empire, the official tongue in Constantinople shifted from Latin to which of the following?
Greek
The Byzantine Empire flourished as a crossroads of trade from which regions?
Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia
Which early Byzantine emperor had the longest lasting impact on civilization in the eastern Mediterranean and beyond?
Justinian
Which of the following do historians most closely associate with the period of Western history known as the High Middle Ages?
Gothic architecture, the Crusades, and the rise of the Western university
Which of the following regions of Western Europe remained most insulated from the general trend toward disorder following the fall of the Roman Empire?
Spain
Which group was most likely to be literate in the period of European history often called the Dark Ages?
Monks
Which of the following terms matches this definition: "agricultural laborer tied to an estate with rights including military protection, heritable ownership of a plot of land, and owing obligations to share crop yields each season with his or her lord."
Serf
Which do historians point to as the key infrastructural development of the Tang-Song era?
Construction of the Grand Canal
Which practice dates from the Song era?
Foot binding
Which is not a native Chinese invention?
Steam-powered machinery
What is the title earned by students who passed the most difficult battery of Chinese civil service examinations?
Jinshi
Which is not an effect of the emergence of neo-Confucianism in the Tang-Song era?
Growing egalitarianism in gender roles
Which of the following possessed the greatest unified organizational capacity across the largest land area in Western Europe in the centuries immediately following the fall of the Roman Empire?
Catholic church
Which best characterizes the impact of the Magna Carta?
The principle of limited monarchy and representative bodies was established
Which of the following does not belong in a list of territorial expansionary moves by Western powers in the postclassical era?
Belgian penetration of the Congo
Which term do historians associate with medieval Western inquiry that sought to reconcile reason and religious faith and is most closely associated with the thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas?
Scholasticism
Which body of water was the scene of trade involving merchant ships from the most diverse collection of civilizations in the postclassical era?
Indian Ocean
Despite extensive modeling of the Chinese imperial system, how did Japanese civilization hew to established tradition in the postclassical era?
Examination systems were not a part of the selection process for the imperial elite
Which of the following peoples would have been outside of the Chinese tribute system in East Asia in the Tang-Song era?
Polynesian
Where in the world did the literary form of the novel emerge?
Japan
Which contemporary society most closely mirrored feudal Japanese patterns of decentralized rule, an economy based on agricultural peasant labor, and emergence of a warrior elite following a distinct code of honor?
Western European
Which class played a central role in the Aztec economy and was more highly respected there than in contemporary China?
Merchant
What is the name of the family units into which Aztec society was organized and accounted for by the state bureaucracy?
Calpulli
The regard with which the Inca held their monarch is analogous to which concepts we see in postclassical and early modern "Old World" civilizations
1. Constitutional monarchy
2. The Mandate of Heaven
3. The "divine right" of kings
2 and 3
Which classical civilizations were most famous for their extensive and centrally planned imperial road networks?
1. Roman Empire
2. Aztec Empire
3. Inca Empire
4. Mongol Empire
1 and 3
Which Inca city remains an important urban center in Peru today?
Cuzco
Which of the following does not belong in this list of Western postclassical literary works written in vernacular tongues?
Summa Theologica, St. Thomas Aquinas
Which of the following organizations grouped town dwellers by occupation, regulated apprenticeships, and upheld standards of workmanship?
Guilds
By which route would medieval women have been most likely to find an alternative path in life outside of marriage?
Becoming a nun
What is the name of the conflict that consumed England and France in the late postclassical era?
Hundred Years' War
Of those listed below, which civilization existed in the most complete state of isolation in the period 600-1450?
Aztec Empire
Which of the following best describes the region where the Inca civilization flourished?
Andean highland and Pacific coast
Which was the most densely populated region of the Americas by the end of the postclassical era?
Valley of Mexico in Mesoamerica
Which of the following best characterizes similarities between Aztec and Inca civilizations?
1. Grew out of long development of preceding civilizations
2. Nobility formed the personnel of the state
3. Climatic and topographical setting
1 and 2
Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilization managed to construct monumental structures without which of the following?
Draft animals
Along with Venice in Italy, what other postclassical city is famous for its dependence on boats and canals as the primary means of urban transport?
Tenochtitlan
All of the following statements concerning Aztec human sacrifice are accurate EXCEPT
Members of the Aztec ruling elite constituted the bulk of the individuals sacrificed
Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of factors preventing European powers from establishing anything more than a limited coastal settlement on the African continent in the period 1450-1750?
Inferior weapons technology
Which European power was first to establish large-scale slave-trading operations on the African continent for the purposes of export to plantations in the Americas?
Portugal
In which century did the Atlantic slave trade peak in terms of numbers of Africans transported?
Eighteenth
Which trend was most typical in slave-capturing coastal West African kingdoms, such as Dahomey, which supplied the Atlantic slave trade?
Increasing hierarchy, centralization and importance of military capacity including use of firearms
Which would be the LEAST typical trade transaction along Africa's northeast coast in the period 1450-1750?
Female slaves exported to a West Indies sugar plantation
The Afrikaners who settled in southern Africa traced their origin back to which European region?
Netherlands
What is the best way to characterize relations between the British and the Afrikaners after the British arrived in southern Africa in 1795?
Britain gains formal possession of the colony, but conflict persists with Afrikaners over land and expansion
Which is most true of the Middle Passage?
Mortality on marches to the African coast was higher than mortality on the ships
In which New World society did the slave population grow mainly through natural increase and not continued importation?
Southern British North American colonies
Where in the New World did slavery last the longest?
Brazil
To which location was the greatest number of enslaved Africans transported?
Portuguese Brazil
Which Western power was first to ban its citizens from engaging in the slave trade?
England
Which Western tradition did the continuation of the Atlantic slave trade violate most?
Enlightenment
Which monarchy constructed the largest contiguous land empire in history, second in size only to the Mongol Empire?
Russian
In which neighboring region(s) did the Russian Empire gain the most land during the Romanov dynasty?
Siberia and Central Asia
The shift of the Russian imperial capital to which city indicated a shift in orientation toward the West under the rule of Peter the Great?
St. Petersburg
Which of the following was unique to Russian industrial development in the czarist period?
Use of serf labor in factories
Which of the following best describes the attitude of Peter and Catherine the Great toward adopting change along Western lines?
It was a source of new ideas and methods to increase the power of ruling family at home and abroad
Which Russian territorial possession lay farthest from the center of power in St. Petersburg?
Alaska
How did Russia tend to fit into the emerging global economy in the period 1450-1750?
As a supplier of grain, timber, fur, and other raw materials to the West
Which feature of the expanding Russian Empire in the period 1500-1800 was NOT a feature of expanding Western European empires in this period?
Expansion was mainly carried out over land and not sea
Which end result of industrial development was most important to Peter the Great?
Russian capacity to produce modern weapons
Which impulse for the colonization of North America was generally missing from colonization of the rest of the New World?
Freedom from religious persecution
The economic centrality of long-distance trade and the lack of long feudal traditions opened a path for which social class to rise to dominance relatively quickly in the New World?
Merchant
How was racial hierarchy on the North American continent different from racial hierarchy in Spanish Latin America?
Intermarriage among Native American, African, and European populations was much less common
In which colonized region of the globe did Western cultural practices supplant existing cultural practices most completely after 1450?
North and South America
In which way did the Spanish colonies reproduce existing Iberian social structures?
Peninsulares sought to reproduce essentially feudal estates with indigenous labor filling the role of the Spanish serf
Which region of the New World saw the initial penetration by European explorers and subjugation of the Native population to slave labor?
Caribbean Islands
Which of the following accompanied the transition from conquest to settlement of the New World?
All of the above
Which New World commodity was of the greatest value to the Spanish monarchy?
Silver
What was the long-term impact of the massive influx of silver into the Spanish economy that resulted from its domination of the New World?
1. Inflation and unwise government spending
2. A permanent economic advantage over other European powers
3. Development of the most sophisticated banking system in the world
1 only
Which New World commodity was of the greatest value to the Portuguese monarchy in the early phases of the settlement of Brazil?
Sugar
Which of the following choices places Latin America's racial hierarchy in the proper order, from lowest to highest, in status?
Native American/African slave, mestizo/mulatto, Creole, Peninsular
Which statement best characterizes the political situation in the West around 1450?
Small political units led by local and regional aristocrats were the rule, not the exception
Which label best characterizes the Italian Renaissance?
A cultural movement
Why did the Renaissance originate in the city-states of northern Italy?
Urban elites grown rich in trade hubs provided financial backing
Which of the following were targeted in the Spanish "Reconquista" of the late fifteenth century?
Muslims and Jews
Which event is most closely associated with the "reintroduction" of the West to the knowledge and trade of the Middle and Far East after the year 1000?
The Crusades
Which modern-day European nation projects farthest west off the Eurasian landmass and into the Atlantic Ocean?
Portugal
Which European naval power is generally credited with breaking the grip on Atlantic maritime trade previously held by the Spanish monarchy?
England
Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of Catholic doctrines rejected by Martin Luther?
Acceptance of the Holy Trinity
Where did Luther's movement first take root?
Germany
Which group traces its roots to the Catholic Reformation, sometimes referred to as the Counter-Reformation?
Jesuits
Which social class experienced the most growth in absolute numbers as a result of the commercialization of the Western economy in the period 1450-1750?
Proletarians
Which movement from the following list establish a tradition of seeking answers to questions about nature through the application of reason and methodical investigation of the world?
Scientific Revolution
Which of the following movements applied reason to the problems of human affairs and can be understood as an extension of the Scientific Revolution into the field of politics?
Enlightenment
Who is credited with bringing awareness of the heliocentric nature of the solar system into Western civilization?
Copernicus
Which of the following thinkers established the principles of objects in motion and defined the forces of gravity?
Newton
The following ideas from the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE can be attributed most directly to the influence of whom?
John Locke
Compared, broadly speaking, with other centers of civilization in the world, which of the following had become the most distinctive characteristic of Western intellectual life by about 1750?
Centrality of science in understanding reality
Which group suffered the greatest loss of authority as absolute monarchy took hold in the West beginning in the seventeenth century?
Aristocrats
Which of the following kingdoms serves as an exception to the rule of the growing power of absolute monarchies in the West in the period 1450-1750?
England
Which event established the basic sovereignty of Parliament over the king of England?
The Glorious Revolution
The relationship between supply and demand, as well as the concepts of "laissez-faire" and the "invisible hand of the market," can be traced to the writings of
Adam Smith
Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of principles we can identify with the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment?
Rulers are blessed by the divine
Which of the following is another way to express the immediate precursor to the factory system of production that arose in England that is sometimes termed protoindustrialization?
Cottage industry
The factories of the Industrial Revolution depended most heavily on the labor of which of the following groups?
Proletarians
Which of the following branches of Protestantism can trace its roots to a royal figure?
Anglican
Which of the following effects best captures the impact of the Mongol Empire on world history?
1. Spread of the bubonic plague across the Eurasian landmass
2. Stabilization of long-distance trade routes, which sparked greater demand for goods from distant lands
3. The exposure of old centers of civilization to new religious and intellectual trends
1, 2 and 3
Which statement best characterizes power relations among the centers of Eurasian civilizations as they approached the year 1450?
A power vacuum of sorts has opened, as Byzantine, Abbasid, and Ming Chinese powers become less of a force in global affairs
How do historians explain the Ming dynasty's 1433 decision to abandon the treasure ship voyages to the Indian Ocean basin that could have placed China at the core of the developing world economy?
All of the above
Which of the following were the first slave-based island plantation colonies set up by Western powers?
Canary and Madeiras Islands
Which of the following can be characterized as outside the world network of trade in 1450?
Mesoamerica
We associate the Maori people with which of the following locations?
New Zealand
Which of the following established a line of demarcation separating Spanish and Portuguese claims in the New World?
Treaty of Tordesillas
Which European power won the colony of Indonesia away from the Portuguese in the seventeenth century?
Holland
Which colony was claimed by Spain as a result of Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe in 1519-1521?
the Philippines
Which event outside the West contributed to creating an opening for the West to move to the core of a global maritime trade network?
All of the above
Which is an example of a new disease Europeans were exposed to as a result of interaction with the peoples of the New World?
Syphilis
What was the demographic impact of the Columbian Exchange on the populations of the Old World?
Population growth across the Old World based on New World crops such as corn and the potato
In which regional waterways did the West most rapidly emerge into a dominant position after 1450?
Caribbean Sea
What common characteristic can be ascribed to the key cash crops of the period 1450-1750, sugar, tobacco, and coffee?
Each one has addictive qualities
Which of the following regional civilizations was least able to control and regulate its trade relations with the West in the period 1450-1750?
Kongo kingdom
Which Western power established trade forts at crucial locations in the Indian Ocean basin including Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca in the early sixteenth century?
Portugal
Which was the first Asian commodity Western merchants were able to gain control over in terms of both production and trade?
Spices
The rule of which Chinese dynasties overlap with the time period 1450-1750?
1. Yuan
2. Ming
3. Qing
4. Song
2 and 3
Which three Muslim empires emerged from the wreckage left behind after the Mongol invasions
(no answer) #277
Which is the most distinguishing characteristic of the Safavid civilization when compared to its Ottoman and Mughal empires?
Adherence to Shia and not Sunni Islam
Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of regions under Ottoman control at the height of their rule in terms of territory gained?
Spain
Which of the following does NOT belong in a list of characteristics of the Janissary corps in the Ottoman Empire?
It launched successful invasions of Central Europe culminating with the sack of Vienna
Religious tolerance, Hindu-Muslim intermarriage, and the abolition of the jizya head tax are all most closely associated with which Mughal ruler?
Akbar
Which of the following is most closely associated with the rule of Akbar the Great?
Prohibition of sati
Which of the following belief systems had little to no following in India by 1750?
Confucianism
Which destabilizing influence did the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires face in the period 1450-1750?
A growing influx of silver through trade with the West leading to widespread inflation
Which development in a contemporary civilization had the greatest impact on the foreign relations of the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires in the period 1450-1750?
Movement of the maritime West toward the core of a new global trade network
How did rulers of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires respond to the rising influence of the West in world affairs after 1500?
A tendency to underestimate Western capacities led to a failure to adopt Western military, technological, and scientific advances
Which leadership tradition dating from the earlier caliphates continued to impact Muslim empires such as the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals into the period 1450-1750?
1. Females in political power suffered crises of legitimacy due to stubborn gender norms
2. Lack of clear succession principles led to recurrent crises when replacing leaders
3. Dependence of Confucian bureaucrats undermined the authority of Islamic scholars
2 only
Which of the following empires in the period 1450-1750 ruled the territory with the greatest degree of religious homogeneity?
Safavid
Which of the following descriptions does NOT belong in a list of elements common to Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties in the period 1450-1750?
Were weakened by failed land invasions into Western Europe
Which civilizations were most able to pursue a policy of isolation in relation to the maritime West in the period 1450-1750?
East Asian
Which European trade product met with the greatest demand in East Asia in the period 1450-1750?
Bullion
Which of the following best characterizes Western presence in Africa and Asia by 1750?
Westerners had failed to establish a lasting presence of any sort
Which description best characterizes the period of Ming rule in China?
Turn to isolationism, consolidation of Confucian values, economic and demographic expansion
By 1750 what was the most populous region on the globe?
East Asia
Which best explains the Ming decision to bring a brief period of extensive overseas exploration guided by admiral Zhenghe in the early fifteenth century to a halt?
Attitudes toward the expeditions within the imperial bureaucracy that ranged from indifference to hostility
Aside from the Yuan, which other Chinese dynasty was founded by nomadic invaders?
Qing (Manchu)
IN which non-European society did the conversion of the local population to Christianity reach hundreds of thousands before there was a state crackdown on the new religion that accompanied a more comprehensive move toward isolation from the West?
Tokugawa Japan
What significance did Nagasaki Bay hold in Japanese history before the U.S. dropped the second atomic bomb there?
Western trade was restricted to contact with the Dutch only at Deshima Island, allowing for limited exposure to European ideas during a period of isolation.
Which group made the most sustained efforts to spread Christianity in South and East Asia in the period 1450-1750?
Jesuits
Which was Spain's Asian colony?
Philippines