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the steady state physiological condition of the body

afferent system

encodes and transmits info to CNS


secreted by kidneys - stimulates RBC production in bone marrow


promotes Ca+ excretion, Ca+ bone deposits


gastrointestinal hormone - secrete in response to food intake, facilitates digestion, absorption


ehances carrier-mediated diffusion by transporter recruitment


satiety sensation - released in response to nutrients in the small intestine


boost appetite - hormone of stomache cells


trigger release of prostaglandins - act on hypothalamus - raise temp


inhibits prostaglandins synthesis

thyroxine and adrenaline

increase heat production

glucostatic hypothesis of ingestion control

decrease in cell level glucose raises hunger

Beta cells secrete


alpha cells secrete


low blood glucose

inhibition of insulin secretion

Pancreas contains

islets of langerhans

insulin also..

an important growth promoting factor

blood levels of AA rise

increased secretion of both glucagon and insulin

adrenaline has a trophic effect on

glycogenolysis by liver, skeletal muscles break down of fats


release glucose

tractus solitarius, vagal nuclei

hypothalamus cells reacting to decrease glucose

GIP stimulated by presence of meal in digestive tract

causes release of insulin


substances that induce growth, differentiation and/or alteration in metabolic activity of cells

hormone pulse

frequency based


increased size of cells


increase cell numbers

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