APUSH ch 19-21
Terms in this set (32)
Beecher, Henry Ward (1813-1887)
Preacher, reformer and abolitionist, Beecher was the son of famed evangelist Lyman Beecher and brother of author Harriet Beecher Stowe. In the 1850s, he helped raise money to support the New England Emigrant Aid Company in its efforts to keep slavery out of Kansas territory. After the War, Beecher emerged as perhaps the best known Protestant minister, in part because of his ability to adapt Christianity to fit the times, emphasizing the compatibility of religion, science and modernity.
Breckinridge, John C. (1821-1875)
Vice president under James Buchanan, Breckenridge ran as the candidate of the Southern wing of the Democratic party in 1860, losing the election to Abraham Lincoln. A Kentucky slave owner, Breckenridge acknowledged the South's right to secede but worked tirelessly to hammer out a com- promise in the weeks before Lincoln's inauguration. Once the Civil War began, he served as a Confederate General, briefly serving as Jefferson Davis's Secretary of War in 1865.
Brooks, Preston S. (1819-1857)
Fiery South Carolina congressman who senselessly caned Charles Sumner on the Senate floor in 1856. His violent temper flared in response to Sumner's "Crime Against Kansas" speech, in which the Massachusetts senator threw bitter insults at the Southern slaveocracy, singling out Brooks' South Carolina colleague, Senator Andrew Butler.
Brown, John (1800-1859)
Radical abolitionist who launched an attack on a federal armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in an effort to lead slaves in a violent uprising against their owners. Brown, who first took up arms against slavery during the Kansas civil War, was captured shortly after he launched his ill-conceived raid on the armory and sentenced to hang.
Buchanan, James (1791-1868)
Fifteenth president of the United States, Buchanan, a Pennsylvania-born Democrat, sympathized with the South and opposed any federal interference with its "pecu- liar institution." As president, he supported Kansas' Lecompton Constitution and opposed the Homestead Act, antagonizing northern Democrats and hopelessly splitting the Democratic Party.
Crittenden, John Jordan (1876-1863)
U.S. senator from Kentucky who introduced a compromise in 1860 in an effort to avoid a civil war. Crittenden proposed to amend the constitution, prohibiting slavery in territories north of 36° 30' but expending federal protection to slavery in territories to the south.
Douglas, Stephen A. (1813-1861)
U.S. senator and Democratic presidential candidate, Douglas played a key role in passing the Compromise of 1850, though he inadvertently reignited sec- tional tensions in 1854 by proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act. In 1858, Douglas famously sparred with Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln-Douglas debates, defeating Lincoln in the senate race that year but losing to the Illinois republican in the presidential election of 1860.
Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865)
Sixteenth president of the United States. An Illinois lawyer and politician, Lincoln briefly served in Congress from 1847-1848, introducing the famous "spot" resolutions on the Mexican war. He gained national prominence in 1858 during the Lincoln-Douglas debates in the Illinois senate race and emerged as the leading contender for the Republican nomination in 1860. Lincoln's election in 1860 drove South Carolina from the Union, eventually leading to the Civil War.
Scott, Dred (1800-1858)
Black slave who sued his master for freedom, triggering the landmark Supreme Court decision that extended federal protection for slavery in the territories. Scott, backed by abolitionists, based his case on the five years he spent with his master in free soil Illinois and Wisconsin.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1811-1896)
Connecticut born abolitionist and author of best-selling Uncle Tom's Cabin, a novel that awakened millions of Northerners to the cruelty of slavery.
Sumner, Charles (1811-1874)
Massachusetts senator and abolitionist, Sumner opposed the extension of slavery, speaking out pas- sionately on the civil war in Kansas. Sumner is best known for the caning he received at the hands of Preston Brooks on the Senate floor in 1856. After his recovery he returned to the Senate, leading the Radical Republican coalition in the Senate against Andrew Johnson during Reconstruction.
Taney, Roger B. (1777-1864)
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1836-1864, Taney overturned Marshall's strict emphasis on contract rights, ruling in favor of community interest in the famous Charles River Bridge case in 1837. Maryland-born Taney also pre- sided over the landmark Dred Scott decision, which ruled that Congress had no power to restrict slavery in the territories.
Adams, Charles Francis (1807-1886)
Whig politician and foreign minister to Great Britain during the Civil War. Adams intervened in 1863 to prevent a British firm from selling laird rams to the Confederacy.
Barton, Clara (1821-1912)
Massachusetts born teacher and philanthropist who served as a nurse with the Union Army during the Civil War. After the war she became involved with the newly-formed International Red Cross, serving as the first president of the American branch from 1882 to 1904.
Blackwell, Elizabeth (1821-1910)
America's first female physician, Blackwell helped organize the U.S. Sanitary Commission during the Civil War to aid the Union War effort by training nurses, collecting medical supplies and equipping hospitals.
Davis, Jefferson (1808-1889)
U.S. senator from Mississippi and president of the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate, staunchly defended slavery and Southern rights throughout his career, but initially opposed secession in 1860. As president of the Confederacy, Davis faced the formidable task of overcoming southern localism in directing his war effort. After the war Davis was briefly imprisoned, but pardoned by Andrew Johnson in 1868.
Archduke of Austria, he became emperor of Mexico in 1864, installed by French Emperor Napoleon III. The well-intentioned but hapless Maximilian saw his government collapse in 1867 when the French withdrew their support under pres- sure from the United States.
Napoleon III (1808-1873)
Nephew of Napoleon I and president of the Second Republic of France, Napoleon III declared himself emperor of the French in 1852. Hoping to capitalize on America's preoccupation with the Civil War, he sent a French army to occupy Mexico in 1863, installing Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico. Under threat from a newly-unified United States, he withdrew his support for his puppet in 1867.
Tompkins, Sally (1833-1916)
Established an infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers in Richmond, Virginia. When Confederate hospitals were brought under military control, Jefferson Davis commissioned Tompkins as an officer with the rank of captain, making her the first female military officer in American history.
Booth, John Wilkes (1838-1865)
Maryland-born actor and Confederate sympathizer who assassinated Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865. Booth died of a gunshot wound a week later after refusing to surrender to federal troops, though it is unclear if the fatal bullet came from one of the soldiers or his own revolver.
Burnside, A. E. (1824-1881)
Union general who replaced George B. McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac in 1862. He lost his command after a foolhardy attack on Lee's forces at Fredericksburg, where more than ten thousand union soldiers were killed or wounded.
Chase, Salmon (1808-1873)
New England born abolitionist who, as secretary of the treasury, pushed Lincoln to take a tougher stance on slavery during the Civil War. In 1864, Radical Republicans unsuccessfully tried to replace Lincoln with Chase on the Republican ticket. Later that year, Lincoln appointed Chase as chief justice of the Supreme Court, where Chase served until his death.
Grant, Ulysses S. (1822-1885)
Ohio born Union general and eighteenth president of the United States. During the war, Grant won Lincoln's confidence for his boldness and his ability to stomach the steep casualties that victory required. First assigned to the West, Grant attained Union victories at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Vicksburg, seizing control of the Mississippi River and splitting the South in two. After taking command of the Union Army, he fought Lee in a series of bloody battles in Virginia, culminating in Lee's surrender at Appomattox. As President, he took a hard line against the South, but economic turmoil and waning support for Reconstruction undermined his efforts.
Hooker, Joseph ("Fighting Joe") (1814-1879)
Union army general, known as "Fighting Joe" for his bold attacks on Confederate lines during McClellan's peninsular campaign. He took command of the Army of the Potomac from A.E. Burnside in 1863, a post he lost just six months later after he led a failed attack on Lee's forces at Chancellorsville.
Jackson, Thomas J. ("Stonewall") (1824-1863)
Daring Confederate general and brilliant tactician, who routinely took men on long marches to outflank Union lines. He led his troops to victory at the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and protected Virginia's Shenandoah Valley from Northern invasion in the first year of the Civil War. Joining Lee at Richmond, he helped halt the Union's Peninsula Campaign in 1862. Jackson was killed by friendly fire at the battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863.
Lee, Robert E. (1807-1870)
Confederate general in command of first, the Army of the Potomac, and later, the entire Confederate army during the Civil War. A bold tactician, Lee kept his army on the offensive throughout most of the war, skillfully outmaneuvering Union armies in key battles. Lee's fortunes reversed after his defeat at Gettysburg, though he continued to battle Union forces throughout Virginia until his surrender at Appomattox. After the war Lee was indicted for treason but never charged, and he actively worked to bring about a peaceful reunion of North and South.
McClellan, George B. (1826-1885)
Union general in command of the Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1862, McClellan led the failed Peninsular Campaign in 1861 and later fought Lee to a virtual stalemate at Antietam. He boosted the morale and confidence of his troops, but tested Lincoln's patience by routinely hesitating to send men into battle. In 1864, McClellan ran against Lincoln as the Democratic nominee, campaigning against emancipation and the harsh treatment of the South while repudiating the antiwar stance of the Copperheads.
Meade, George G. (1815-1872)
Union general who led the Army of the Potomac to victory against Lee's forces at Gettysburg. Meade, unable to stomach the immense human costs of his victory, refused to pursue Lee back across the Potomac, and thus lost his post to Ulysses S. Grant shortly thereafter.
Pickett, George (1825-1875)
Confederate general who led the bold but ill-fated charge against union forces at Gettysburg.
Pope, John (1822-1892)
Union general whose army suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Robert E. Lee in the Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas).
Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820-1891)
Union general who led the destructive march through Georgia in 1864. A pioneer practitioner of "total war," he advocated bringing war to the civilian population to undercut morale and destroy supplies destined for Confederate troops.
Vallandigham, Clement L. (1820-1871)
Democratic congressman from Ohio who led the Copperhead faction of the party in opposition to the Civil War. Convicted by a military tribunal for his treasonous outbursts, Vallandigham was banished to the South though he later made his way to Canada and made an unsuccessful bid for the Ohio governorship.