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26 terms

AP Gov Ch 8

STUDY
PLAY
party competition
the battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics.
political party
an organization to gain political power
linkage institution
the means by which individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy
rational-choice theory
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives.
party image
The voter's perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism
party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
ticket splitting
voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices
party machines
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
patronage
the business given to a commercial establishment by its customers
closed primaries
elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty
open primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
blanket primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters are presented with a list of candidates from all the parties. Voters can then select some Democrats and some Republicans if they like.
national convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
national committee
delegates who run party affairs between national conventions
national chairperson
person responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually hand-picked by the presidential nominee.
coalition
the union of diverse things into one body or form or group
party eras
historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.
critical election
Sharp changes in the existing patterns of party loyalty due to changing social and economic conditions
party realignment
the displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period
New Deal coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
party dealignment
the gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification.
thrid parties
have never won a presidental elections but they can influence the out come
winner-take-all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Proportional representation
representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote
coalition government
a government controlled by a temporary alliance of several political parties
responsible party model
a view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.