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living things come from living things

Spontaneous generation

living things arise from nonliving

Charles Darwin

a young English naturalist, formed theory of evolution following a sea voyage aboard the HMS Beagle in 1830


The development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time; resulting from heritable changes in characteristics

Genetic Drift

phenomenon by which allele frequencies in a population change as a result of random events, or chance

Sexual Selection

nonrandom mating

Natural Selection

Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive


different homelands species geographically isolated


species isolated due to barriers between population groups may arise through disruptive selection


the study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment


the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment

Levels of Organization

Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism


manufacture their food by capturing energy to produce organic molecules ex most plant, some protists, and some bacteria


cannot manufacture their own food must get energy from eating other organisms, all animals, all fungi, most protists, and many bacteria


eat producers


eat other consumers


eat both producers and consumers


feed on garbage of ecosystem

Earths History

arose from 400 millions years of cosmic collisions between gas and dust particles; releasing thermal energy, about 4 billion years old, all elements existed on Earth and in solar system the whole time


composed mainly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

Population Dynamics

Size, Density, Dispersion

Population Dynamics Size

number of individuals actual count or approximation

Population Dynamics Density

number of individuals/area

Population Dynamics Dispersion

Spatial distribution of individuals within the population

Population Growth Factors

Birth Rate, Death rate, Life expectancy, Immigration/Emigration, Density- independent and density-dependent factors

The First Cells

anaerobic prokaryotes that used organic molecules for food

Homologous Structures

Structures that occur in different species and originated from a structure in a common ancestor

Vestigial Structure

Structures that seem to serve no function but resemble structures with functional roles in other organisms

Endosymbiotic Theory

This is the theory on how we made a more coplicated , Theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiotic relationship among several different prokaryotic cells

Natural Selection

the mechanism for evolutionary change in which organisms that are more well-adaptive to their environment have more reproductive success


an individual member of a species `


(ecology) a group of various species inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other and non living parts of their enviroment


collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment


The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which the living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.


a group of the same organisms living at the same time in the same place

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