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35 terms

Evolution and Ecology

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Biogenesis
living things come from living things
Spontaneous generation
living things arise from nonliving
Charles Darwin
a young English naturalist, formed theory of evolution following a sea voyage aboard the HMS Beagle in 1830
Evolution
The development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time; resulting from heritable changes in characteristics
Genetic Drift
phenomenon by which allele frequencies in a population change as a result of random events, or chance
Sexual Selection
nonrandom mating
Natural Selection
Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive
Allopatric
different homelands species geographically isolated
Reproductive
species isolated due to barriers between population groups may arise through disruptive selection
Ecology
the study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment
Interdependence
the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment
Levels of Organization
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism
Autotrophs
manufacture their food by capturing energy to produce organic molecules ex most plant, some protists, and some bacteria
Heterotrophs
cannot manufacture their own food must get energy from eating other organisms, all animals, all fungi, most protists, and many bacteria
Herbivores
eat producers
Carnivores
eat other consumers
Omnivores
eat both producers and consumers
Detritivores
feed on garbage of ecosystem
Earths History
arose from 400 millions years of cosmic collisions between gas and dust particles; releasing thermal energy, about 4 billion years old, all elements existed on Earth and in solar system the whole time
Atmosphere
composed mainly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Population Dynamics
Size, Density, Dispersion
Population Dynamics Size
number of individuals actual count or approximation
Population Dynamics Density
number of individuals/area
Population Dynamics Dispersion
Spatial distribution of individuals within the population
Population Growth Factors
Birth Rate, Death rate, Life expectancy, Immigration/Emigration, Density- independent and density-dependent factors
The First Cells
anaerobic prokaryotes that used organic molecules for food
Homologous Structures
Structures that occur in different species and originated from a structure in a common ancestor
Vestigial Structure
Structures that seem to serve no function but resemble structures with functional roles in other organisms
Endosymbiotic Theory
This is the theory on how we made a more coplicated , Theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiotic relationship among several different prokaryotic cells
Natural Selection
the mechanism for evolutionary change in which organisms that are more well-adaptive to their environment have more reproductive success
Organism
an individual member of a species `
Community
(ecology) a group of various species inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other and non living parts of their enviroment
Ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
Biosphere
The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which the living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.
Population
a group of the same organisms living at the same time in the same place