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147 terms

BCHS - Biology Review

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abiotic
nonliving parts of the environment
acid rain
rain that is more acidic than normal
active transport/diffusion
process by which cells use energy to transport molecules through the cell memebrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration
adaptive value
any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions
agarose
gel-like substance used in bacterial cultures
AIDS
disease that results when the HIV virus attacks the human immune system
allergy
condition in which a person's immune system is overly sensitive to environmental substances that are normally harmless
amino acid
any one of several building blocks of protein
animal
complex, multi-cellular organism with specialized tissues and organs, but no cell walls
antibody
protein, produced by the immune system that either attacks invading pathogens or marks them for killing
antigen
molecule found on the outer surfaces of cells that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader
asexual reproduction
method of reproduction in which all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single parent
ATP
compound that stores energy in cells
autotroph
organism that produces its own food
bacterium
single celled organism without a distinct nucleus
biodiversity
variety of species in an area
biome
large groups of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
biosphere
all of Earth's ecosystems
biotic
living parts of the environment
carnivore
organism that survives by eating animals
carrying capacity
largest population of any single species that an area can support
catalyst
substance that can speed up the rate of chemical reaction w/out being changed or used up during the reaction
cell
basic unit of structure and function that makes up all organisms
cell membrane
thing boundary between the cell and its environment
cellular respiration
process in which nutrients are broke apart, releasing the chemical energy stores in them
chloroplast
green organelle that contains chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place
chromosome
thick thread-like structure that contains genetic info in the form of DNA
circulation
flow of materials within a cell as well as between parts of a multi-cellular organism
classify
group things based upon their similarities
community
combination of all the different populations that live and interact in the same environment
competition
struggle between organisms for the same limited resources in a particular area
consumer
organism that obtains it's energy from producers
cytoplasm
jellylike substance that is between the cell membrane and the nucleus and that contains specialized structures
decomposer
organism that consumes dead organisms and organic waste
decomposition
process where dead organisms are broke down into their raw materials and returned to the ecosystem
deforestation
forest destruction that results from human activity
depletion
serious decline or reduction
dichotomous key
guide the compares pairs of observable traits to help the user identify an organism
digestion
process that breaks down large food molecules into simpler molecules that the organism can sue
direct harvesting
the destruction of an organism or the removal of an organism from its habitat
disease
condition that prevents the body from working as it should
DNA
material found in all cells that contains genetic info about that organism
ecological niche
specific role played by an organism or a population of organism in the ecosystem
ecology
study of how living things interact with one another and their environment
ecosystem
all the living and nonliving things that are in a specific area
egg
sex cell produced by a female
element
substance consisting of only one kind of atom
embryo
organism in the early stages of development
endocrine glands
various hormone producing glads that secret substance directly into the blood
endoplasmic reticulum
organelle that transports proteins and other materials from one part of a cell to another
energy flow
movement of energy through an ecosystem
energy pyramid
diagram showing how food energy moves through the ecosystem
environment
every living and not living thing that surrounds an organism
enzymes
proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living things
equilibrium
state of balance and stability
estrogen
hormone that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
evolution
process by which species have changed over time
excretion
removal of all the wastes produced by the cells of the body
expressed
way that an unseen gene is seen in organism as an actual physical trait
Fallopian tubes
part of the female reproductive system where the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm cell
feedback mechanism
cycle in which the output of a system either modifies or reinforces the first action taken by the system
fertilization
process that combines a sperm and egg
fetus
unborn developing young of an animal
food chain
a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
food web
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
fossil
preserved remains of ancient organisms
fungus
kingdom of organisms that are mostly multi-cellular
gamete
sex cell
gene
segment of DNA that contains the code for a specific trait
genetic recombination
formation of a new combo of genes during sexual reproduction
genetic variation
normal differences found among offspring
geologic time
Earth's history as revealed by layers of rock
global warming
increase in Earth's average surface temp caused by an increase in greenhouse gases
glucose
sugar that is a major source of energy for cells
greenhouse effect
trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere
guard cells
specialized cells that control the opening and closing of the pores on the surface of a leaf
habitat
place where an animal or plant lives
herbivore
organism that eats only plants
heredity
passing of traits from parent to offspring
heterotroph
organism that can't make its own food
consumer
homeostasis
ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes
hormone
chemical produced in the the endocrine glands
host
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
immune system
body's primary defense against disease causing pathogens
insulin
hormone that prompts glucose to move from the blood into body cells resulting in a lower glucose level in the blood
limiting factor
any factor in the environment that limits the size of a population
lipid
one of a group of organic compounds that includes oils, fats, and waxes
meiosis
process that results in the production of sex cells
meniscus
curved surface at the top of a column of liquid
metabolism
all the chemical reactions that occur w/in the cells of an organism
mitochondria
pod-shaped organelles that contain enzymes used to extra energy from nutrients
mitosis
process that divides the cell's nucleus into 2 each with a complete set of genetic material from the parent cell
molecule
particle in which 2 or more atoms combine to from a single unit
smallest unit of a compound
muscular system
body system comprised of tissue that contracts with it is stimulated
combination of muscles that enables the body to move
mutation
any alteration in the sequence of DAN
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
niche
specific role played by an organism in its ecosystem
nitrogen cycle
movement of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil and organisms and then back to the atmosphere
nonrenewable resource
any resource such as fossil fuels and minerals that can't be replaces
nucleus
large structure w/in a cell that controls the cell's metabolism and stores genetic info including DNA
nucleic acid
large, complex organic molecules that contain the instructions cells need to carry out their life processes
nutrient
substance that provides the body with the materials and energy need to carry out the basic life of cells
organ
body structure made of different kinds of tissues combined to perform a specific function
organ system
several organs that work together to perform a major function in the body
organelle
structure w/in the cell that carries out specific function
organic
molecules that contain both hydrogen and carbon
ovary
organ of a female reproductive system that produces and egg cell
overproduction
potential for a species to increase its numbers beyond the area' carrying capacity
oviduct
part of the female reproductive system where the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm
pancreas
endocrine organ that secretes insulin
parasite
organism that survives by living and feeding on other organisms
pathogen
organism that invades the body causing disease
pH
measure of whether a substance is acidic, neutral or basic
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
plant
complex multicellular organism that obtains energy through photosynthesis and consists of cell walls and specialized tissues and organs
population
individuals of a single species that live in a specific area
predator
animal that hunts and kills other animals for food
prey
animal that is hunted and killed by predators
primary succession
first group of communities that moves into a previously lifeless habitat
producer
organism that makes its own food from light energy and inorganic material
progesterone
hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system
recombination
additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in an unique combo of genes
renewable resources
resources that can be replaced
respiration
process which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is release for use in cells
reproduction
process which organisms produce new organisms of the same type
ribosomes
one of the tiny structures in the cell that is site of protein production
scavenger
carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organism
selective breeding
process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generation
sex cells
egg or sperm
sexual reproduction
method that involves 2 parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent
simple sugar
result of digested starches
skeletal system
body system that contains the bones, provides shape and support and protects internal organs
species
group of organism taht share certain characteristics and can mate with one another producing fertile offspring
sperm
male sex cell
stomata
tiny pore found on the underside of most leaves
testes
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and testosterone
testosterone
hormone associated with males sexual development and reproduction
tissue
group of specialized cells that perform a specific function
trait
characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through the genes
transpiration
process where plants absorb water through their roots and eliminate it through tiny pore on the undersides of their leaves
uterus
organ in females where the embryo develops int a fetus
vacuole
storage sac w/in the cytoplasm of a cell that may contain either wastes or useful materials such as water or food
vertebrate
animal w/ a backbone
virus
nonliving particle of protein and genetic material that reproduces by invading the cell of a living organism
water cycle
process by which water continuously moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
zygote
cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm