20 terms

Westward Expansion

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Era of Good Feeling
A name for President Monroe's two terms,
1) popular president
2) 2nd generation of leaders-Great Triumvirate
3) strong nationalism,
4) dominance of Dem-Reps = one political party = no political conflicts.
Nationalism
The strong belief that your country is the most important, and what benefits the country as a whole is the priority.
Sectionalism
Working to benefit your own section of the country is the priority, rather than to the nation as a whole
The Great Triumvirate
These 3 leaders ran Congress for almost 40 years.
1. Henry Clay of Kentucky who represented in the West. 2. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts who represented the North.
3) John C. Calhoun from South Carolina who represented the South.
The American System
The three-part economic plan developed by Henry Clay:
1) 2nd BUS-strong banking system,
2) protective tariffs,
3) and a network of roads and canals.

Clay's plan was essential in developing a profitable marking for all sections of the country.
Tariff of 1816
What was special about it?
It was the first Tariff that specifically protected American Manufacturers.

A protective tariff = raising the prices of British goods = American goods now cheaper
Tariff of 1828
"Tariff of Abominations" = Southerners nickname for it.
Protective Tariff
Sectionalism: Designed to protect US manufacturing but benefited North more than South = Led to the Nullification Crisis
John Marshall
His Court's Decisions gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
State govt could not control corporation/private institution
**New Hampshire tried to make Dartmouth a public college, with the governor at the head. College was founded way before the US was founded, so the Supreme Court declared that the former charter was still intact.
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
Agreement between the U.S. and Britain (which controlled Canada at that time) for mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. Later expanded to an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The court ruled that the states did not have the power to tax the national bank

The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review; "midnight judges" John Marshall and power of the Supreme Court
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Case involving land fraud in Georgia; concluded that state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract;
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819)
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States
Panic of 1819
1st major economic depression since Constitution
*collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Allows federal control of interstate commerce under commerce clause of the Constitution.
The Monroe Doctrine (1823)
President James Monroe declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further European colonization and threatened to use force to stop further European interventions in the Americas.
What was Spain induced to do as the result of First Seminole War?
They were induced to agree to the Adams-Onís Treaty and cede Florida to the USA.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay.

Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams.

Adams won.

Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state=Jackson's supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.