64 terms

Ch. 2: Behavior Modification

STUDY
PLAY
walking recommended per day
5 to 6 miles
10,000-12,000 steps
actions
steps required to reach a goal
habits
minds learn to use familiar cues to carry out automatic behavior that has worked successfully in the past
allow our minds to spend energy working on other tasks and puzzling through other problems
happen in familiar environments NOT NEW
can be changed by deliberate choice
education
power
provides people with knowledge to form opinions, allows them to better grasp future outcomes from today's choices and forces them to question issues and take stands
excessive stress
often triggers bad habits
prefrontal cortex
responsible for reminding us who we are and our long term goals
places long term desires ahead of short term goals
willpower
self-restraint against impulses can be built, like a muscle, if built slowly and gradually
limited resource
increased through exercise,a good night's sleep, balanced nutrition, quality time
descreases during depression, anxiety, anger, and loneliness
barriers to change
lack of core values
procrastination
preconditioned cultural beliefs
gratification
risk complacency
complexity
indifference and helplessness
rationalization
illusions of invincibility
self efficacy
one's belief in the ability to perform a given task
motivation
the desire and will to do something
locus of control
a concept examining the extent to which a person believes he or she can influence the external environment
external locus of control
what happens to them is a result of chance or of the environment and is unrelated to their behavior
internal locus of control
believe they have control over the events in their lives
three things that keep people from taking action
lack of competence
lack of confidence
lack of motivation
problems of competence
lacking the skills
problems of confidence
have the skill but don't believe you can get it done
fear and feelings of inadequacy
problems of motivation
have the competence and the confidence but unwilling to change because the reasons to change are not important to them
categories of behavior change
1. stopping a negative behavior
2. preventing relapse to a negative behavior
3. developing a positive behavior
4. strengthening a positive behavior
5. maintaining a positive behavior
simplest model of change
two stage model of healthy and unhealthy behavior
learning theories
behavioral modification perspective stating that most behaviors are learned and maintained under complex schedules of reinforcement and anticipated outcomes
problem-solving model
behavioral modification model proposing that many behaviors are the result of making decisions as the individual seeks to solve the problem behavior
social cognitive theory
behavioral modification model holding that behavior change is influenced by the environment, self-efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior itself
relapse prevention model
behavioral modification model based on principle that high-risk situations can be anticipated through the development of strategies to prevent lapses and relapses
lapse
to slip or fall back temporarily into unhealthy behaviors
short-term failure to maintain healthy behaviors
relapse
to slip or fall back into unhealthy behaviors over a longer time
longer-term failure to maintain healthy behaviors
humanistic theory of change
basic goodness of humanity and respect for man kind
people are unique in the development of personal goals
people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs
transtheoretical model
behavioral modification model proposing that change is accomplished through a series of progressive stages in keeping with a person's readiness to change
5 stages
precontemplation stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which an individual is unwilling to change behavior
contemplation stage
stage of change in which the individual is considering changing behavior within the next six months
weigh pros and cons of changing
preparation stage
stage of change in which the individual is getting ready to make a change within the next month
define a general goal
action stage
stage of change in which the individual is actively changing a negative behavior or adopting a new, healthy behavior
maintenance stage
stage of change in which the individual maintains the behavioral change for up to five years
termination/adoption stage
stage of change in which the individual has eliminated an undesireable behavior or maintained a positive behavior for more than five years
processes of change
actions that help you achieve change in behavior
consciousness-raising
involves obtaining information about the problem so you can make a better decision about the problem behavior
social liberation
stresses external alternatives that make you aware of problem behaviors and make you begin to contemplate change
self-analysis
next process in modifying behavior is developing a decisive desire to do so
emotional arousal
experiences and expresses feelings about the problem and its solutions
dramatic release
deep emotional experiences
positive outlook
taking an optimistic approach from the beginning and believing in yourself
commitment
accept the responsibility to change and believe in your ability to do so
engage in preparation and may draw up a plan of action
behavior analysis
how you determine the frequency, circumstances, and consequences of behavior to be altered or implemented
mindfulness
act of being aware of thoughts and choices
urge surfing
directs the person to notice the urge, pay attention to the way the urge feels as it builds and then simply continue noticing as the urge subsides
goals
motivate change in behavior
stronger it is the more motivated you'll be either to change unwanted behaviors or to implement new, healthy behaviors
ultimate aims toward which effort is directed
written goals
it must be written down
self-reevaluation
analyze their feelings about a problem behavior
countering
substitute healthy behaviors for a problem behavior is critical in changing behaviors as part of the action and maintenance stages
monitoring
increases awareness of the desired outcome
environment control
person restructures the physical surroundings to avoid problem behaviors and decrease temptations
helping relationships
surrounding yourself with people who will work toward a common goal with you or those who care about you and will encourage you along the way
rewards
repeat behaviors that are rewarded and to disregard those that are not rewarded or are punished
techniques of change
methods or processes used during each process of change
SMART goals
acronym used in reference to specific, measureable, attainable, realistic and time specific goals
specific
state exactly and in a positive manner what you would like to accomplish
measurable
set a benchmark
acceptable
goals that you set for yourself are more motivational than goals that someone else sets for you
embrace psotive thoughts
realistic
should be within reach
do not write goals that are too easy or difficult to acheive
time specific
specific date should be set for completion
processes of change for precontemplation
consciousness raising
social liberation
processes of change for contemplation
consciousness-raising
social liberation
self-analysis
emotional arousal
positive outlook
processes of change for preparation
consciousness raising
social liberation
self-analysis
emotional arousal
positive outlook
commitment
behavior analysis
goal setting
self-reevaluation
processes of change for action
social liberation
positive outlook
commitment
behavior analysis
mindfulness
goal setting
self-reevaluation
countering
monitoring
environmental control
helping relationships
rewards
processes of change for maintenance
commitment
mindfulnes
goal setting
self-reevaluation
countering
monitoring
environmental control
helping relationships
rewards
processes of change for termination/adoption
commitment
mindfullness
monitoring
environmental control
helping relationships
rewards
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...