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Anatomy Chapter 5: Skeletal System

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Axial Skeleton
The part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
Appendicular Skeleton
The part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
Support
Bones make up the internal framework of the body that supports soft tissues
Protection
Bones protect the soft body organs
Movement
Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body's various parts
Storage
Fat is stored int eh internal cavity of the bones. The bones also act as a storage center for minerals.
Blood and Cell Formation
blood cell formation occurs in the marrow cavities of the certain bones
Long Bones
Bones that are longer than they are wide
Short Bones
Bones that are generally cube shaped and contain mostly spongy bone.
Flat Bones
Bones that are usually thin, flattened and curved
Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone
Epiphyses
Ends of long bone (contains red marrow).
Yellow Marrow
Marrow composed of stored fats found in many bones
Red Marrow
Functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells
Ossification
The developmental process of bone formation
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts
Bone-destroying cells
Skull
Cranium
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the structure of the face
Hyoid Bone
A U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles
Vertebral Column
Made up of bones called vertebrae or vertebra through which the spinal cord runs
Fontanels
Gaps between a baby's skull that slowly close up during the first 18 months of life
Sacrum
Bone formed from five vertebrae fused together near the base of the spinal column
Sternum
The flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
True Ribs
Top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
False Ribs or Floating Ribs
Last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum
Metacarpals
Hand Bones
Tarsal Bones
Foot Bones
Femur
Thigh bone, largest bone in the body
Humerus
Upper arm bone