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the skeletal and circulatory systems both assist in maintenance of body temperature.


muscle cells are capable of mitosis (cell division)


what do satellite cells contribute to damaged muscle that enables repair?

sarcoplasmic reticulum

the storage site for calcium in the skeletal muscle cell.


the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction as the result of depolarization of neuron


the protein covers binding sites on an actin molecule in a muscle at rest

number of active cross bridges

the factor that is primary determinant of force prodcution in a single skeletal muscle cell

myosin ATPase isoform

the biochemical property of skeletal that is the key factor that regulates contraction velocity (Vmax)

type 1

type of skeletal muscle fiber that contain the greatest number of mitochondria

type IIx

type of skeletal muscle fiber that has the greatest Vmax (contraction velocity)

placing the muscle in a starting position in which it is contracted slightly below its resting length

this would not contribute to increased force production in an entire muscle

type II skeletal cells

aging is associated with sarcopenia, and this process is most pronounced in ___


as movement speed increases, force prodcution ___.


the muscular layer of the heart responsible for muscular contraction


refers to ventricular contraction


refers to ventricular relaxtion


cardiac cells have satellite cells.

all of the above

which of the following effects does exercise have on myocardial infarction?
-reduces the chance of occurrence
-reduces the number of cardiac cells that die during ischemia
-increases survival rate


the part of the cardiac cycle affected to the greatest extent during exercise...

blood pressure

the force exerted by blood on the arterial walls.

q= hr x sv

the equation for cardiac output


the organ responsible for the long term regulation of blood pressure

SA node

considered the pacemaker of the heart

atrial depolorization

reflected in the P wave of an ECG

ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization

reflected in the QRS complex of an ECG.

ventricular repolarization

reflected in the T wave of an ECG.

acetylcholine; decrease

neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system release __ at its nerve terminals on the SA node __ heart rate.

removal of parasympathetic input

change in nervous system outflow that is responsible for the initial increase of exercise.


trained and untrained females have similar resting cardiac ouptuts


according to the Frank-Starling law of the heart, an increase in end-diastolic volume will __ the force of contraction and thus volume of blood pumped by the heart per beat

stroke volume

the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat


elevated mean arterial pressure will increase stroke volume.


the intensity of exercises decreases the amount of vasodilation and blood flow to active muscle.

double product

indicates the metabolic demand placed on the heart


leg exercise elicits higher heart rates and blood pressures than arm exercise

SV decreases and HR increases

accurately describes how cardiac output is maintained during prolonged sub maximal at a fixed intensity


pulmonary respiration and cellular respiration refer to the same process


part of respiratory system where actual gas exchange occurs


during normal quiet breathing at rest, inspiration is driven primarily by the...


at rest, expiration is an active muscular process.


the most accurate description of the frequency of airway resting COPD

tidal volume

the lung volume that represents the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in 1 normal breath

vital capacity

lung volume that represents the amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled following a maximal test. (expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume)

pulmonary ventilation

refers the movement of air into and out of the lungs.

tennis court

estimated that the total lung surface of lung is approximately the size of a ___.

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