37 terms

NIC Study Guide

STUDY
PLAY
Phonetics
The study of speech sounds; how sounds are articulated and perceived.
Phonology
The study of the sound system; how sounds can and cannot be combined and in which sequences
Morphology
The study of the smallest meaningful units of a language and the way in which these form words
Syntax
The study of how sentences are constructed/related to each other. Independent of semantic meaning
Semantics
The study of language meaning; how words and sentences relate to the objects/concepts to which they refer.
Pragmatics
How the meaning of utterances depends on context (time, place, social relationship between speaker/listener, assumptions about listener)
Parameters (ASL)
5 basic parts of a sign:
1) hand shape
2) movement
3) location
4) palm orientation
5) non manual markers
Prime
The smallest unit that does not have meaning in a signed language, but which indicates or signals a change of a larger unit.
Cognates
Words that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.
Linguistics of Visual English (LOVE)
A manual code for English which tries to achieve a 1 to 1 correspondence between English, syllables or affix (BE+HIND vs. BEHIND or TO+DAY vs. TODAY)
A-Language (L1)
The language in which you are most fluent and are capable of discussing a variety of topics for numerous purposes. Native Language
B-Language (L2)
Second language. One acquired by living in a country where that language is spoken by interacting frequently with people using that language, or by studying it formally
C-Language
Language you may understand most of what is expressed, but have difficulty responding.
Cultural & Linguistic Mediation
Interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages and cultural schema; requires cultural expansions and reductions.
Helper Philosophical Frame
- Views Deaf people as handicapped and incapable of understanding the world around them.
- Interpreters are care givers.
- Overly involved with clients, moving out of interpreter role to advise, direct, teach or cajole.
- Deaf culture as aberrant and views ASL as poor English, reflective of limited education or mental abilities
Communication Facilitation Philosophy
- Views Deaf as seeking inclusion into mainstream
- English as superior to ASL, but ASL is useful communication mode for less educated/intelligent.
- Aware of importance of placement, facilitates visual intake, lighting, indicating who is speaking and absence of visual noise.
- Emphasis on interpreters appearance
Bilingual-Bi Cultural Philosophy (BI-BI)
- Deaf as oppressed minority, accepts ASL & Deaf culture.
- Interpreter as equalizing communication and empowering Deaf and hearing persons involved
- Sensitive to physical communication and dynamics
- Provides linguistic and cultural equivalents, interprets implicit information and fosters comprehension
Conduit/Machine Philosophy
- Interpreters assume no responsibility for interaction or communication taking place between clients
- Generally viewed as rigid or inflexible.
- Views Deaf as needing to learn to care for themselves.
- English is only acceptable form of communication
- Confuses quantity with quality of communication
Translation
Refers to the transition of a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language
Transliteration
The process of transmitting from a form of English-like signing to spoken English. No change in language, simply mode of delivery.
Interpretation
The process of changing a message from one language to another, conveying all essential elements of meaning and maintaining dynamic equivalence; requires complex thinking and analytical strategies.
Object Verb Agreement
Linguistic feature found in ASL, but not English.
Registers
1) Frozen
2) Formal
3) Consultative
4) Casual
5) Intimate
Culture
A set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior and traditions.
Process of interpreting (5 Steps)
1) Take in source language
2) Identify deep structure meaning
3) Apply contextual/schema screen
4) Formulate/rehearse target language
5) Produce interpretation
Cokely's Interpreting Process Model
Message Reception
Preliminary Processing
Short Term Message Reception
Semantic Intent Realized
Semantic Equivalence Determined
Syntactic Message Formulation
Message Production
Colonomos' Interpreting Process Model
Concentrating
Source Frame (R1)
Representing
Target Switch (R2) [Analyze and Formulate]
Planning
Constructing Meaning
Speaker Variables
Contextual Factors
Discourse Analysis
The act of distinguishing the component parts of the message in order to understand the whole of the message
10 Steps of Discourse Analysis
1) Prediction
2) View and Recall
3) Content Mapping
4) Salient Language Features of Source Language
5) Abstraction
6) Retell in Source Language
7) Salient Language Features of Target Language
8) Visualization Mapping
9) Retell in Target Language
10) Interpretation
10 C's of Effective Target Texts
1) Channeled Appropriately
2) Clearly Articulated
3) Comfortably Paced
4) Complete Grammatically (within the rules of the target language)
5) Conceptually accurate and appropriate in vocabulary choices.
6) Cohesively Organized
7) Confidently Presented
8) Culturally adjusted for idiomatic language use
9) Composed with equivalent affect
10) Correct information presented.
PL 93-112 - The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Defines "handicapped individuals" and their rights. Mandates fully accessible rehabilitation services to members of all disability groups. This means that agencies and institutions receiving federal funds must be accessible and must provide sign language interpreters and other forms of access accommodation. ie. post secondary institutions, business, criminal legal proceedings, medical settings, etc.
PL 93-112 - The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - Important Sections
Section 501 - Employment practices of the federal government
Section 503 - Federal contractors
Section 504 - Recipients of federal assistance.
PL 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act
1975
- Requires that disabled children be educated in the "least restrictive environment".
- Lead to widespread mainstreaming has resulted in a proliferation of interpreting jobs within elementary and secondary schools
PL 89-333 - The Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Identifies sign language interpreting as a service for Deaf clients of vocational rehabilitation for the first time. Marks the beginning of paid interpreting opportunities for Sign Language Interpreters in the US.
PL 95-539 - The Court Interpreters Act of 1978
Mandates the use of only certified interpreters when non-English speaking litigants are involved.
PL 95-602 - Rehabilitation Amendments of 1978
Section 101 - mandates the use of personnel trained in the use of client's native language or mode of communication.
Section 304 - provides money that currently funds 12 federal interpreter education centers.
Americans with Disabilities Act
1991
- Applies the concept of "equal access" to the private business sector.
- Requires businesses of a certain minimum size to provide interpreters to Deaf employees, TTY's etc.