Anatomy: adaptive immunity

of what does the immune response involve
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any substance capable of mobilizing our immune system and provoking an immune response' pathogens; allergensantigensare on our cells but they would cause an antigen response in someone else (organ transplant); before birth, cells inventory the proteins and other larger molecules in the body, learning to identify these as "self",self cellson lymphocytes surfaces enable self antigens to respond to non self or foreign antigens but not self antigensreceptorsmost antigens arelarge and complexa small antigen usually would no cause response sometimes they will attach to a larger molecule; that change in the molecules size makes it detectable by the immune systemhaptensreaction to larger molecules or the hapten can occur...examples?animal dander, penicillin, dust, particles, pollen, etcmade in Red bone marrow before birth and continues though out lifelymphocyte originslymphocyte origins that go to the thymus where they learn to becomeT cellsremain in red bone marrow until they have grown and mature intoB cellssome of the lymphocyte origins (once mature) will staycirculating within the bloodthe rest of the lymphocyte origins will take up residence in thespleen, lymph odes, bone marrow & intestinal liningafter creation B and T cells undergo training to become _________________ capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to itimmunocompetentimmunocompetency: thymus- thymosin directed-maturation processt cellsdevelop immunocompetency in bone marrow but not all survive training and are not self tolerant and can only respond to 1 typeb cellsour ______ determine what an be recognized and resistedgenesrecognized antigens (forgeign material and inactivates or destroys them3rd line of defensemust be activated before it can respond to an antigenlymphocytemeans it is not restricted to the sight of initial infectionsystemic immunityhas a memory because a ___________ has been previously encounteredpathogencome from bone marrow as monocytesmacrophagesmacrophages engulf foreign particles and rid them from the area and present fragments of those antigens like signal flags on their own surfaces where they can be recognized by _______________ t cellsimmunocompetentproteins that are important in the immune responsecytokinesis the lymphocytes themselves anting on a target directly or indirectly by chemicalscellularis provided by antibodies present in the bodes humor fluidhumoral immunityare soluble proteins secreted by or activated by B cells r their plasma offspring in response to an antigenantibodiesprovide by antibodies present in the body humors/fluids that destroy nations or antigen bearing agentshumoral- b cellsevents of humoral-encounters antigen (shape fit) -becomes activated by helper T cells -cytokines cause B cells to produce more clones and memory cells and plasma cells-flu creating antibodies; -having the diseaseactive-tetanus -mompassivecytotoxic, helper, suppressort cellstell plasma cells to slow done (stop)suppressorDescribe the event that leads to the synthesis of interferon and the result of its synthesis interferon is synthesized in response to viral infection of a cell.The cell produces and releases interferon proteins, which diffuse to nearby cells, where they prevent viruses from multiplying within those cells.Antigens are substances capable of mobilizing theimmune systemOf all the foreign molecules that act as complete antigens _______ are the most potentproteinsSmall molecules are not usually antigenic, but when they bind to self cell surface proteins they may act as ______, and then the complex is recognized as foreign, or ______haptens, nonselfImmunity is resistance to disease resulting from the presence of foreign substances or _______ in the bodyAntigensWhen this resistance is provided by antibodies released to body fluids, the immunity is called _____Humoral immunityWhen living cells provide the protection, the immunity is called _______Cellular immunityThe major actors in the immune response are two lymphocyte populations, the _____ and the _____.B Cells & T CellsPhagocytic cells that act as accessory cells in the immune response are the _____MacrophagesBecause pathogens are likely to use both ____ and ______ as a means of getting around the body, ______and other lymphatic tissues are in an excellent position to detect their presenceBlood, Lymph, Lymph Nodeswhat is the purpose of the third line of defensespecific defense system that recognizes foreign molecules and destroys themthe study of immunity is calledimmunologythe three important aspects of the adaptive defenseantigen specific, systemic, memorydifference between self and non selfself: certain proteins our body takes inventory of non: rejects transplantthe crucial cells in this system arelymphocytes and macrophageswhat do b lymphocytes do and t cells... t cellsB cells develop immunocempetence in bone marrow; T cells develop in the thymushow is it determined if a cell is b or tlymphocytes come from hemocytoblasts in red bone marrowwhere does immunocompetence occur for b cells/ t cellsdepends on where in the body it becomes immunocompetentit is our___________ not antigens which determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resistantibodiesproduce close plasma cells and memory cellsb cellswhich one does not last too long but mass producesplasma cellswhich ones last longer and whymemory cells cuz they respond to the same antigen once againhow is the b recognition of antigens different from t cellsdifference between the cytotoxic t cells and helper t cells and suppressor t cellscytotoxic kills using perforins, helper send the cytokines to activate B cells for an attack, suppressor tells your body to stop the cytokines and stop fightingwhat are allergiesineffierent, lymphocyte programmingwhat is the most common type of allergiesimmediatewhat is anaphylactic shockover zealous immune response to harmless substanceswhat are delayed hypersensitivities and give a common example..allergic contact dermatitis, mechrated by special t cells chemicals released are cytokineswhat are immunodeficiencies and what is the most well knownSCID, AIDSwhat is immunocompetence and which body cells display itthe ability of the B and T lymphocytes to perform its functionswhere do t and b cells developt-thymus b-bone marrowwhat are the functions of the cell mediated and antibody mediated immunityhow do antigens induce an immune responsemacrophage takes in the antigen and breaks it apart (antigen processing) and presents it to the receptors on the helper T lymphocytes (antigen presentation), this is called the "double handshake" and it causes the helper T cells to release cytokines and activate the B cells and Cytotoxic T cells to kill the pathogen.what is the normal function of major histocompatibility complex self antigensfor the immune system to be able to tolerate itselfdiscuss the role of self tolerance in the immunocompetent phase of a lymphocyteself-tolerance is so that the lymphocyte doesn't react to your self antigensdiscuss free antigens versus presented antigensthe adaptive immune system is a two armed defensive system:a humoral arm and a cellular arm that uses lymphocytes, macrophages, and specific molecules to identify and destroy all substances (living and non) that are in the body but are not recognizes as being selfthe immune systems ability to respond to such threats depends on the ablutiy of its cells- to *recognize foreign* substance (antigens) in the body by induing to them, -to *communicate* with one another so that the system as a whole mounts a *response* specific to those antigenswhat is the essential role of macrophages in adaptive immunitypresentingis essentialf or activation and clonal select of the t cellsantigen presentationare the t cells that act as the directs or managers of the immune system (activate b cells)helper t cellsregulatory, releases chemicals that suppress the activity of both t and b cells and are vital for winding down immune response after destroying an antigensuppressor t cellslosed its ability to tolerate self antigens while still recognizing and attacking foreign antigens (self cells from non self cells)autoimmune diseasesdestroys the white matter (myelin sheaths) of the brain and spinal cordmultiple sclerosisimpairs communication bw nerves and skeletal musclesmyasthenia gravisthe thyroid hand produces excessive amounts of thyroxinegraves diseasea systemic disease that occurs mainly in young women and particularly affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and skinssystemic lupus erythematosusa sever impairment of kidney functionglomerulonephritissystematically destroys jointsrheumatoid arthritisare abnormally vigorous immune responses in which the immune system causes tissue damage be harmless to the bodyallergies/ hypersensitivitiesis used to distinguish this type of antigen front hose producing essentially normal responsesallergenmost common type of allergiesimmediate hypersensitivity/ acute hypersensitivityis triggered by the release of a flood of histamine when igE antibodies bind to mast cellsimmediate hypersensitivity/ acute hypersensitivityover the counter anti allergy drugs contain _______________ that counteract these effectsantihistaminesbodywise/ systemic, acute allergic response fairly rare, when the allergies hard to breatheanaphylactic shockmediated mainly by a special subgroup of helper t cells, cytotoxic t cells and macrophages take much longer to appeardelated hypersensitivitydelated hypersensitivity which follow skin contact with poison ivy, some heavy metals, and agents act as happens after diffusing throughout the skin and attaching to body proteins, they are perceived as foreign by the immune systemallergic contact dermatitisinclude both congenital and acquired conditions in which the production or function of immune cells or complement is abnormalimmunodeficienciesmost devastating congenital condition in which there is a marked deficit of both b and t cells cuz t cells are required for operation of adaptive responsesevere combined immunodeficiency disease (scid)the most important and most devastating of the acquitted immunodeficiencies which cripples th immune system by interfering with the acidity of helper t cellsacquitted immune deficiency syndrome (aids)immune B cell is stimulated to complete when antigens bind to surface receptors activating/ sensitizing the cell to switch on & clonehumoralthe ability to respond depends on cells ability torecognize foreign substance (antigens) by binding; communicate with one another so the system mounts a response specific to antigensin humoral, lymphocytes start to grow and multiply fast to form army like itself and bearing same antigen specific receptors (clone formation)primary humoral responsein primary humoral response, t cells influenceb cellssome b cell members change toplasma cells and others to memory cellscan respond to same antigen later onmemory cellsimmunological memorymemory cellsfaster, prolonged, effective preparation has been made; old enemies (antigens) come and new plasma cells & antibodies made flood into blood stream with higher antibody level that beforesecondary humoral responsewhen b cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them WORK -plasma cells -vaccinesactive immunityobtained from serum of an immune human or animal donor -mother -serumpassive immunityimmunocompetent T cells activated form a clone by blinding with recognized antigens not able to bind with free antigens like B cells, double recognition happens, macro. eats antigens and processed antigen are displayed on external surface with macrophages proteins, t cells must recognize non self antigens and self on macrophage surface, t cells spoon feed antigens by macrophagescellular immune responseantigens are presented by macrophagedouble recognitiont cells recognized non self bymacrophagest cells recognized self bycoupling with a specific glycoprotein on macrophage surfaceessential for activation and clonal selection on Tc ells without its immune response is severely impairedantigen presentationreleased by macrophages are importantcytokine chemicalsspecialize in killing virus infected, cancer, or foreign graft (specific) cells by binding tightly to a foreign cell and releasing toxic (chemicals/ performs and granzymes) from granulescytotoxic killer t cellsenter foreign cells plasma membrane and pores appear in target allowing granzymes (protein) digesting enzymes to enter and kill pathogensperforinsdestroys pancreatie beta cells in deficient production of insulintype 1