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the class of rural,agricultural laborers in traditional european society.


originally the warrior class,the class of privileged landowners in traditional european society


the hereditary rulers of traditional european society

divine right of kings

the theory that contended that monarchs recieved their right to rule directly by god.

tax revolts

violent presant uprisings in respone to increased demands for taxes from the monarchs and nobility


a theory of government that contends that a rightful ruler rules with absolute power over his or her subjects.


the dominant artistic style of the 17th century characterized by its emphasis on grandeur and drama.

st theresa in ecstasy

a sculpture executed between 1645 and 1652 by bernini that exemplifies the counter-reformation baroque style

the night watch

Portrait by Rembrandt that portrays a group of city guards. Painted in contrast of light and shadow to draw attention to focus.

english civil war

forces loyal to king charles I fought to defend the power of the monarchy,the official church of england,and the priviledges and prerogatives of the nobility; forces supporting parliament fought to uphold the rights of parliament,to bring an end to the notion of an official state church, and for the notions of indiviual liberty and the rule of the law.

the commonwealth

period where england was ruled without a monarch,following the victory of the parliamentary forces in the english civil war and the subsequent execution of charles I.


period of English history following the commonwealth and preceding the glorious revolution; encompasses the reigns of Charles II and James II

the glorious revolution

quick,nearly bloodless uprising that coordinated Parliament-led uprisings in England with the invasion of a Protestant fleet and army form the Netherlands and which led to the expulsion of James II and the institution of a constitutional monarchy in England under William and Mary

constitutional monarchy

a theory of government that contends that a rightful ruler's power is limited by an agreement with his or her subjects.

second treatise of civil government

philosophical treatise by the englishman John Locke; the primary argument for the establishment of natural limits to governmental authority


an administrative bureaucrat in absolutist France of the 17th century usually chosen from the middle class,who owned his position and,therefore his loyalty directly to the state.


the great palace of the french monarchs,11 miles outside of Paris; the center of court life and political power from 1682until the french revolution of 1789


the hereditary monarchs of russia

law code of 1649

legislation in russia that converted legal status of groups as varied as preasants and slaced into that of a single class of serfs.

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