Must-Know Legislative Acts - AP Gov.
Terms in this set (20)
1939: Limits political activities of civil service employees.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Title II bans discrimination in public places on basis of race, color, national origin, or religion.
Title VII:• Prohibits employment discrimination on basis of all of the above plus sex.
• Allows employers to give racial preferences in hiring.
• Executive Order #11246 required federal contractors to adopt affirmative action programs.
• Allowed class action suits.
• Enforced by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Voting Rights Act of 1965:
• Suspended literacy tests.
• Empowered federal officials to register voters.
• Empowered federal officials to ensure that citizens could vote.
• Empowered federal officials to count ballots.
• Prohibited states from changing voting procedures without federal permission.
Age Discrimination In Employment Act
1967: Bans age discrimination for jobs unless age is related to job performance.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
• Banned housing discrimination against same classes specified in C.R. Act of 1964. Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 1967:
• Bans age discrimination for jobs unless age is related to job performance. Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990:
• Bans job discrimination against disabled if "reasonable accommodation" can be made. Requires access to facilities for handicapped.
National Environmental Policy Act
• Required environmental impact reports before major projects began. Air Quality Act, 1967 and various Clean Air Acts, 1960s-1990s:
• Established emissions standards for cars and factories.
Federal Election Campaign Acts
• Created Federal Election Commission.
• Required disclosure of contributions and expenditures.
• Provided limitations on contributions and presidential election expenditures.
• Provided subsidies for presidential candidates.
Title IX of Education Act of 1972
Prohibited gender discrimination in federally subsidized education programs.
War Powers Act
President could send troops overseas to an area where hostilities were imminent only if:
• He notified Congress within 48 hours.
• He withdrew troops within 60-90 days.
• He consulted with Congress if troops were to engage in combat.
• Congress can pass resolution to have troops withdrawn at any time.
Budget and Impoundment Control Act
• Established congressional budget committees.
• Established Congressional Budget Office
• Extended budget process by three months.
• Allows either house to override temporary impoundment (deferral).
• Automatically voids permanent impoundment (rescission) unless both houses approve within 45 days.
Freedom of Information Act
• Allows public access to non-classified federal documents.
• Set gradual budget reduction targets to lead to a balanced budget.
• Across-the-board budget cuts (sequestering of funds) to kick in if targets not met.
• Loopholes led to abandonment in late 80's.
American With Disabilities Act
• Bans job discrimination against disabled if "reasonable accommodation" can be made.
• Requires access to facilities for the handicapped.
National Voter Registration Bill ("Motor Voter Act'),
• Requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for driver's licenses, applications, or completing license renewal forms.
Religious Freedom Restoration Act
• Restored compelling purpose guideline for courts to use when states restrict religious liberty. Struck down by Supreme Court in Boerne v. Flores.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
• Requires Congressional Budget Office to analyze impact of unfunded mandates on states.
• Requires separate congressional vote on bills that impose unfunded mandates.
• Banned soft money contributions to national political parties
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (Welfare Reform Act of 1996)
• Ended federal entitlement status of welfare.
• In its place, federal govt. gave block grants to states to administer welfare.
• "Strings" attached to these grants:
1. Recipients must work within 2 years.
2. Recipients cannot receive benefits for more than 5 years.
Communications Decency Act (CDA)
• Prohibited circulation of "indecent" material on Internet to minors. Struck down by Supreme Court.
McCain-Fein gold Bill (Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002)
• Raised hard money limits to $2000 and indexed it to inflation
• Banned National Political Parties from raising or spending soft money.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
• Requires individuals not covered by employer or government health insurance to purchase insurance or pay a penalty.
• Creates Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan for those individuals who had been denied coverage due to pre-existing conditions.
• Allows parents to keep their children on their plan until age 26.
• Creates insurance exchanges for individuals and employers.