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Nutrition Exam II Questions

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What substance helps suspend fat in a variety digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
bile
Where are most digestive enzymes produced?
liver and pancreas
What produces bile?
liver
Muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract?
peristalsis
The study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expression is called?
nutrigenomics
What % of a meal has een absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?
95%
Most digestion that occurs in the large intestine is caused by?
Bacteria
Excessive acid production in the stomach on upper small intestine could result in?
ulcers
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by the following mechanisms except?
Sustained absorption
Most of the digestive proceses occur in the?
Small intestine
All of the following are characteristics of heart burn except?
subsides when a person lies down after a meal
Constipation can best be prevented by?
eating dietary fiber
The basic building block of a protein is called?
Amino acid
Chemical element found in all amino acids but not in fats or carbs?
Nitrogen
An essential amino acid?
Cannot be syntehsized in the body in sufficient quantity to meet body needs
Essential food that provides all amino acids?
Chicken
Proteins are digested in which area of the body?
Stomach and small intestine
What enzyme digest protein in the stomach?
Pepsin
Instructions for making proteins located in?
DNA or RNA
Person who eats only plant foods is referred to as a?
vegan
Edema occurs with severe lack of dietary protein b/c?
blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to tissues
A typical American diet should supply approximately what % of protein as essential amino acids?
10%
Comparing plant sources to animal sources?
plant sources contain more dietary fiber
Marasmus is associated with deficiency of?
Kcals
Kwashiorkor is associated with deficiency of?
protein
Which type of diabetes is the most common?
Type II
Glucose is also known as?
Dextrose
What enzyme is responsible for carb digestion in the small intestine?
Pancreatic Amylase
Lactose intolerance is caused by?
Lactase deficiency
The main function of glucose is?
To supply energy
Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?
Insulin
When the pancreas detects excess glucose, it releases the?
hormone insulin
Which of the following hormones is released to orrect a hypoglycemic state?
Glucagon
The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of?
Carbohydrate consumed
The major storage sites for glycogen are?
Muscles and liver
Dietary fibers are primarily?
Polysaccharides
A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?
25 to 38 grams
Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are?
Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke
Essential fats include?
Omega 3 and Omega 6
High blood concentration of ___ decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease?
HDL
In which form are most dietary lipids found
Triglycerides
A saturated fatty acid contains?
No double bonds
Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat?
Trans fatty acids
Which would be a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
Safflower oil
Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid?
Monosaturated
After chyliomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?
Lymphatic
Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?
High density lipoprotein
To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called?
Lipoproteins
Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega 3 fatty acids.
Salmon
The body energy that can be stored in almost unlimited amounts is?
Triglycerides