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Sociology Chapter 3: Culture
Terms in this set (95)
defines how people in a society behave in relation to others and to physical objects
the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share
the knowledge, language, values, customs, and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation
ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence peoples' beavior
abstract or intangible human creations that members of a society make, use, and share
human behavior, guide relationships with others
culture helps explain __________________ and provides a blueprint that helps the people in society ________________________
group of people who live in a defined territory and participate in a common culture
culture, way of life, human, culture
all the different elements of ___________ form a whole culture that defines a society's _________________. Therefore, __________ behavior is based on _____________.
mental outlines people form based on experience or memory
innate patterns of behavior
which is more important when determining human behavior: culture or instincts?
do genetics influence human behavior?
intelligence and certain personality traits
what aspects of human behavior have genetic factors have been linked to?
kindness, depression, anxiousness
what personality traits are influenced by genetic factors?
automatic reactions to physical stimuli
impulses to reduce discomfort
culture channels the expression of biological characteristics
how does culture influence biological characteristics?
the study of how biology influences human behavior
they apply the principle of natural selection to the evolution of social behavior
how do sociobiologists apply Darwin's theory of evolution?
the importance on genetics could be used as a justification to label specific races as superior or inferior
first criticism of sociobiology
there is too much variation in societies around the world for human behavior to be explained on strictly biological grounds
second criticism of sociobiology
the creation and sharing of culture primarily using symbols
physical objects, sounds, smells, and tastes that meaningfully stand for or represent something else
the limits of time and place
what does having language free humans from?
hypothesis of linguistic relativity
theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language
theory stating that language largely shapes our view of reality
multiple words for and ways to represent them
how do cultures express what is important to them through language?
alters our perception
what does exposure to another language often do?
culture reflects and enforces society's central values; encourages harmony and stability by integrating individuals into society
culture reflects and enforces the values of those who hold power. it encourages and maintains social inequality
culture is maintained and modified through everyday social interaction
rules that define culture
why people in a society or group behave similarly in similar circumstances
what do norms help explain?
the creation of new cultural elements including both objects and ideas
a better understanding of something already known
the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another
rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lack moral overtones
norms of great moral significance that are vital to the well being of society
are folkways more or less deeply rooted and morally focused than mores?
a norm so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group or even the supernatural
norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials; consciously created and enforced
mores are often the ________ of laws
do people automatically conform to norms?
rewards and punishments (can be formal or informal) used to encourage conformity to norms
sanctions imposed by people with given special authority
rewards and punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
can specific sanctions be associated with specific norms?
broad ideas about what most people in a society consider to be good or desireable
are values or norms more general?
are values or norms more specific?
because values are the basis for norms
why do values influence human behavior?
basic values in the USA
achievement and success
activity and work
efficiency and practicality
who listed the basic values of the USA?
refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together form a peoples' way of life
totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
the structure of relations within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction
provides context within which our relationships with the external world develop
one society containing elements from many different cultures
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
reshaping existing cultural items into new forms
learning about something previously unlearned or unrecognized
the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another
unwritten standard of behavior understood by people who share a common identity
strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences
extremely offensive, even unmentionable
values that conflict with one another are mutually exclusive
refers to values and standards of behavior that people in society profess to hold
ideas about the nature of reality
a sense of continuity to a community
what do beliefs provide?
what they believe
what do people base their behavior on?
the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
the culture that creates it
who gives the material culture meaning and determines its uses?
cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
actual behavior patterns of members of a group
the values of their own culture
what do people make judgements based on?
discovery, invention, and diffusion
why does culture change?
culture made up of many different elements such as racial identities, ethnicities, religious beliefs, etc
cultural differences within and between nations caused by natural or social circumstances
making sure that materials are appropriate for the cultures for which they're intended
the feeling of surprise and confusion people may feel when they encounter cultural practices different from their own
anxiety when people encounter cultures radically different from their own
cultural patterns practiced by traditional groups, often in isolation
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
groups that are part of the dominant culture, but differ from it in some important respects
subcultures deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture
strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seek an alternate lifestyle
groups of people that share a social characteristic
views and analyzes another culture in terms of that culture's own values and standards
judging others in terms of ones own cultural standards
the assumption that one's own culture is superior to others
general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
appearances, activities, and social institutions are all examples of what?
American anthropologist who tried to define cultural universals in a 1945 paper, "The Common Denominators of Culture"
the ways in which a culture expresses universal habits differently
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