160 terms

So You Want to be an Interpreter?

Chapters 1-14 study guide
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Terms in this set (...)

Anglophone
a person who uses english based communication, as compaired to french based communication, (common term in Canada for English speaking people)
AVLIC (Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada)
The national professional association and certifying body of sign language interpreters in Canada; has provincial chapters in a central office in Edmunton Alberta
Audism
an attitude based on pathological thinking that results in a negative stigma toward anyone who does not hear; like racism or sexism, audism judges, lables, and limits individuals on the basis of whether a person hears or speaks
Auditory Feedback Loop
The channel through which hearing people hear (and monitor) their own voice as they speak (alt term: backchannel feedback)
Aural-Oral Languages
Languages based on a structered set of linguistic rules in which the communication is based on sound; spoken languages spoken through out the world fall into this catergory
Benefactors are Perfect
an idea frequently held by members of marginalized groups that members of the oppressor group are somehow superbeings; also referred to as magical thinkers
Bicultural
an individual who has knowledge about 2 cultures;
an individual who has developed socially appropriate behaviors necesary to fit in each of the 2 cultures (further it implies that the individual has the ability to shift from culture to culture, displaying socially appropriate behaviors at the right time with the appropriate group)
Bi-Bi Bilingual Bicultural Philosophy of Interpretation
A philosophy of interpreting based on the belief that effected interpretation requires cultural and linguistic meditation in order to accomplish to accomplish speaker goals and maintain dynamic equivalance; based on the recognition of deaf people as members of an oppressed minority; accepts ASL as a language and deaf culture as that which encompases the norms, values, and traditions of this community of people
Bi-Bi Education
an approach which stresses ASL as the instructional language for all subjects accept englsih, with an untimate goal of developing compantecy in both english and ASL; based on the recognition of deaf people as members of an oppressed minority; accepts ASL as a language and deaf culture as that which encompases the norms, values, and traditions of this community of people;
B Language
refers to ones second language one acquired by living in that country where that language is spoken, by interacting frequently with people who use that language or by studying
COI (Certificate of Interpretation)
the professional cerificate awarded by AVLIC to individuals who successfully complete both knowledge and skills assessment in effect so long as the member adheres to the AVLIC COE and maintains annual active membership with fees paid in full
Certified Deaf Interpreter
a deaf interpreter who has taken and passed the RID certification
C Language
a language one can "manage" to comprehend what is spoken/signed however the individual speaks/signs with a heavy accent, improper gramatical structture and frequent semantic errors
Classifyers
a specific set of signs that servs several functions in ASL; some are iconic which (look somewhat like the object they represent) others are arbitrary (there are no obvious reason for that sign or handshape to be used as a classifyers for the noun it represents);
Clients/Consumers
a term used to refer to those for whom sign language interpreters work; includes both deaf and hearing
Cloze Skills
the ability to mentally fill in the blanks when part of an utterance is obscured or when the reciever does not understand a term or phrase
Code of Ethics
set of guidelines that require an individual to develop effective decision making skills, a clear sense of their own beliefs and values, undestand how society defines right/wrong, good/bad, and have the ability to apply all of this to spur of the moment, professional interactions;
Code Switching
Conscious or Unconscious movement from ASL to English Sign or English Sign to ASL, this often occurs due to the experience of oppression to deaf people in Canada and the US
Communication Dynamics
The way people in a communication interaction react to or engage with one another and to the overall interaction
Communication Facilitation Philosophy
a set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals ASL, and communication dynamics that influences the way a person views their role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped; ASL as a means of communicating with less educated individuals, sensitivity to environmental factors that influence communication
Communication
a continuous, transactional process involving 2 or more people who occupy different but overlapping environments; as they seek to share information or ideas, they create a relationship by simultaneously sending and recieveing messages some of which are clearly and overtly delievered, others that carry implied and unstated information; messages are often distorted by physical and psychological noise
Conceptually Accuratly Signed English (CASE)
manual code for english which combines English gramatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs; choice of signs based on the intended concept or idea of the speaker.
Conduit or Machine Philosophy
a set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics that influences the way a person views their role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn to take care of themselves; Word-For-Sign equivalance between signs and spoken english; and the interpreter as having no responsibility for the interaction or communication dynamics taking place
Conference of Interpreter Trainee (CIT)
an american orginazation of educators who teach interpretation; membership is international
Confidentiality
the aggreement that information that takes place in a professional relationship is not to be shared with others outside of the specific setting and relationship
Congenital Deafness
to be born deaf or hard of hearing
consecutive interpretation
the process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information
Consultative
when this register is used one of the individuals involved in the interchange has "expert" status or enhanced command of the topic at hand
Contact Varieties
a mixture of 2 langauges resulting from prolonged langauges contact between members of different linguistic communities - includes code switching, code mixing, and lexical borrowing; sometimes referred to as Pidgin Signed English
Critical Thinking Skills
the ability to break the whole into its parts to examine in detail to look more deeply into a text and determine its nature by engaging in disciplined reasoning, inferring and deducing in order to extract the message carried "below the words/signs" or "between the lines" as well as the information explicitly stated
cultural and linguistic mediation
interpreting in such a way that information has equivilent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages in cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and linguistic expansions and reductions.
Cultural Expansion
providing the contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema or experiential frame; done within the form of the interpretation
Cultural Reduction
reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within the information without effecting the meaning intended; done to meet communication and cultural norms of a target language
Cultural View of Deaf people
accepts deaf people as normal, capable human beings, rather than as disabled, abnormal
Culture
that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired of the society; Set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior, and traditions
Deaf
used to denote individuals who, in addition to having a significant amount of hearing loss, function by choice as members of the deaf community, subscribing to the unique cultural norms, values, and traditions of that group
deaf (deaf view)
a label of pride and solidarity for those who have similar experiences, use a shared form of communication and who subscribe to deaf cultural values, norms, and traditions
deaf (hearing view)
refers to the inability to hear as compaired to "normal" hearing, generally seen as a deficit or an impairment; measured by dB (alt. tems - hearing impaired, or mild/moderate/severe hearing loss)
deaf interpreter
a deaf person trained in the art of interpretation, who facilitates communication between a deaf individual who is using non standard ASL, a regional dialect or some other form of visual communication and hearing interpreter.
decibels (dB)
a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from 0 for the average least perceptive sound to about 130 for the average level where sound enduces pain.
Dependence on the "Benefactor"
the phenomena of minority group members being dependant upon members of the power group for certain things they percieve they are unable to do for themselves. Discourse style the way a language requires the information be presented in a monologue or dialogue.
Dynamic Equivalence
an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and their audience that allows a connection to be made and the speakers goals to be accomplished
Empowerment of the Client
Behaving in a way that supports anothers right to make decisions within interpersonal interaction by vesting control in the hands of consumers then slowly in the hands of the interpreter; avoiding the imposition of ones own opinions, advice, sence of values, or prefered form of communication on others.
Empowerment
a process of reclaiming one owns power in order to take charge of ones own life
English Based Signs
a generic term used to refer to a variety of signing systems based on english structure, rather than the structure of ASL (includes RM, SEE1, SEE2, CASE)
Environmental Factors
phomena in the area surrounding communication that can effect the interaction, including lights, extraneous auditory or visual noise, distance from the interpreter to the speaker, distance from the interpreter to the audience
Equivocal Language
words, signs, or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way often misleading or confusing to the listener
Ethical Behavior
making choices and acting in a way that respects others; grows out of a strong moral sense, requires the ability to think critically and the courage to choose to do the right thing
Ethics
behavioral standards - a set of principles that defines what a judged appropriate or innapropriate, right or wrong
Ethnocentric
an attitude that ones own race or culture is superior to other cultures
Euphimestic Language
the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, discriptive words/phrases (ex: powder room)
External Noise
actual physical factors that interfere with communication; includes things like flickering lights, squeel of microphone, incessant couging
Fatalism or Passivity
the tendency of members of an oppressed group to feel powerless to change or strike back at "the system"; a "go with the flow" and "don't rock the boat" attitude
Fear of Freedom
a lack of determined action that might lead to true equality and empowerment based on fear and sense of inferiority that of an oppressed group, in spite of their anger about the injustice, descrimination and marginalization they experience
Frankophone
a term used in Canada to refer to people who use French based communication, as compaired to english based communication
Frozen Form
information or texts that are "fixed"- written, video taped, and audio taped. They never change their form. (example: Star Spangled Banner, The Lords Prayer)
Hearing Impaired
a term used by hearing people in an attempt to politely refer to deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals; viewed by deaf and hard of hearing people as negative and stigmatizing
Group Oppression
a situation in which the dominant group denigrates members of a minority, including yourself - worth, abilities, inteligence, and right to be different and affirmend in the difference; includes a denial of the minority group, language and opportunities to use it and denegration of their culture
Helper Philosophical Frame
Views deaf people as handicapped, limited, unable to fully manage their personal and financial needs, believes that deaf people are mentally, emotionally, or experimentally incapable of fully undestanding the world around them
High Visual Orientation (HVO)
a term used to refer to individuals who have no language skills in ASL, LSQ, English, French, or any other language resulting from a developmental disability or because of educational or social deprivation; alt terms minimul language skills or competency
Horizontal Hostility
the tendency of members of a minority group to turn its anger on other members of its own group; results range from barbed comments and putdowns to verbal or physical attacks or physical violence
Institutionalized Oppression
attitudes taught overtly or covertly in schools, through the media, and in homes and churches that result in the denigration of a minority groups language, culture, and personhood
Interpretation
the process of changing a message from one language to another conveying alll essential elements of meaning and maintaining dynamic equivilance; a highly sophisticated task involving complex thinking and analytical stratigies
Interpreter
one who takes a source language and after working through a complex mental process expressed the language into the target language, maintaining essential elements of meaning and dynamic equivalence
LSQ
The rule governed language used by most deaf people in Frankophone areas of Canada
Lagtime
the time used by the interpreter to analyze a source language utterance and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing in the target language
Lineage of Deaf Children
90% of all deaf children are born to hearing families who have no deaf relatives in their extended family
Linear Grammar
Gramatical structure of a language where lexical items and parts of speech are produced singularly one at a time and a string of lexical units
Linguistic and Cultural Expansions/Reductions
Minipulating the target language so it contains all of the essential elements of meaning expressed in the source language as to fit the target language of communication norms
Linguistic Expansion
Stating implied or "understood" information or ideas present in the source language overtly in the interpretation when this informaiton is required of the communication norms of the interpretation
Linguistic Fluency
being able to manipulate a language with the fines of the native or near native user of the language this inlcudes being able to properly shift registers, to discuss a variety of technical and non technical topics, and to "play" with the language (play on words, or play on signs)
Linguistic Reduction
reducing the volume and detail of information present in the source language without effecting the meaning intended; done due to the linguistic norms and expectations in the target language
Linguistics
The study of languages and the structures of how they are composed
Machine Philosophy
a set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics which influences a way a person views, her/his role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn how to take care of themselves word for sign equivalence for sign equivalence between signs and spoken english
Manually Coded English
a variety of english based signing systems to represent the aural-oral language of English (RM, SEE1, SEE2. CASE)
Mentoring (Twinning)
an arrangement in which a more experienced interpreter "adopts" a less experienced interpreter showing her the ropes, introducing her the deaf community, and serving as a sounding board to review and evaluate the less-experienced interpreters professional behavior, decision-making, and quality of interpretation or transiliteration
Minimul Language Competency
term used to refer to individuals who have no language skils in ASL, LSQ, English, French or any other language due to brain damage
Modality
the channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken (aural-oral) or signed (visual-gestural)
Multi-Leveled Grammar
the ability of a language to produce more than one lexical item or more than one part of speech simultaneously
Math of the Misguided Child
a belief of a majority group that individuals in a minority grop and people don't know whats best for them and they require "guidance" by the majority group
Myths
traditional stories that explore the world view of a group of people or that explains the practice or belief
Need for Approval from Marginalized Group Members
the expectaitions and need for some expression of appreciation and gratitude of the majority group and the minority group failure to achieve approval results from victimization
Negative View of the Oppressed Group
Stigmitazation of members of the minority group because they do not measure up to the standadrds est by the majority; the group is marginalized systematically shut out of opportunities of equality
Non-Manual Signals
a set of facial-physical markers (behaviors that accompany signs in ASL) conveys linguistic gramatical and effective information; signs absent the non-manual signals result in non-linguistic and non sensical utterances
Oppression
unjust or excessive power or position; results in disenfranchisement of others
Oral Deaf People
Deaf people who do not used ASL, prefer to use speech, and speech-reading primary form of communication
Oral Transliteration
Making spoken English visible for an Oral deaf individual requires repeting in what is being said without using speech selecting words that are most easily speech-readible and sometimes using a gesture for clarification
Oral Transliterator
one who listens to a spoken englsih message then who clearly changes into readible form for a deaf consumerr who uses speech and speech reading as form of communication
Paralinguistic Elements
Elememnts that accompany and add meaning to the expression including gestures, tone of voice/size of signs, visual/vocal affect, etc.
Passive Voice
a type of sentence construction in which the actor performing the action indicating by the verb isnt overtly identified
Paternalism (possessive consciousness)
a caretaker attitude by members of the dominant group toward minority group based on the assumption that they are unable to make appropriate decisions and need to be taken care of
Pathological View of Deaf People
a view of deaf people as disabled, imperfect human beings
stereotypical labels historically assigned to deaf people in literature
Physiological Noise
Biological factors that interfere with communication; (ex: illness, exhaustion, or hunger)
Pidgin Sign Language
older (an incorrect) term used to refer to contact varieties or blended forms of English often used when deaf and hearing people attempt to communicate
Pragmatic Use of Language (Pragmatic Rules)
the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterance within the context
Process Models of Interpreation
attempts to graphicaly demonstrate complex mental activities, decisions made, and the factors influencing an interpretation; some models are based on formal research and others have been developed by the long-time practitioners based on reflection and introspection of the pro
Processing Time
the time used by the interpreter to analyze the source language utternace and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing an equivalent message in the target language
Professional Competence
having the knowledge and skills base, as well as ethical judgement of the task of the professional in a given field
Professional Distance
a social, psychological, and physical boundry established ensured that people function within appropriate professional roles (protects professional and client)
Professional
people working in a field in which they are expected to hold the interests of their clients paramount of all decisions made; have special knowledge, licensure, or certification, adhere to COE; expected to be trustworthy, be prepared, able to deal with information in a descrete manner and avoid inappropriate emotional involvement of the client
Prosidy
the rhythm of a language including stress, intonation, pausing, and phrasing that help listeners determine meanign and predict what the speaker will say next
Psychological Noise
Realities that exist in the heads of all participants in the communication environment and distracts from or interferes with the communication (internal stress, personal judgements, and random thoughts)
Real World Classifyers
classifyers that take on life-size proportions and look a bit like a reduced form of mime when being produced
Reciprocal Signals
certain eye behaviors, head nods, verbal utterances (ex: right, uh huh) to indicate that one is intending and comprehending (or not undestanding) messages being recieved
Reprocity of Perspecives
an assumption that the experiences and values of antoher group are identical to your own. Thus, if you traded places members of the 2nd group would come to view the world like yourself and view the world as comcomitment values
Register
identifyable variations within all languages which mark the formality or informality of an interaction;
Registry for the Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)
the national professional interpreter association and interpreter certifying body of the USA
Repetive Strain Injury (RSI)
a condition resulting from using a particular set of tendons in ones work
Residual Hearing
the ability to hear some degree of some frequencies in spite to partial hearing loss
Resitant to Attempts of Liberation
a fear on the part of members on the power group toward any attempts of the oppressed group of equality
Rochester Method
a manual code of English; every word is fingerspelled except the word "and"
Schema
an orginizational or conceptual partern in the mind; the contextual fram or "script" that helps us interpret what is happening; learned infomally from our social and cultural interactions
Seeing Essential English (SEE1)
a manual code for English wherein each syllable is given a separate manual movement
Semantics
the way meaning is created by the use and interrelationship of words, phrases and sentences; precise shades of meaning applied to words/signs in context
Sight Translation
changing a message from the frozen form of one language (writen or taped) into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to preparte a formal translation; Deaf individuals hold a fairly common expectation that initerpreters will be able to provide this service to them.
Sign Supported Speech (SSS)
a broad term used to refer to a variety of English0based signing systems; composed of invented hand movements that attempt to represent English in a manual/visual form, relying entirely upon the lexicon and syntax of English, and usually accompanied with speech or lip movements
Signed English (SE)
combines English gramatical order with ASL signs as well as some invented initialized signs
Signing Exact English (SEE2)
a manual code for English which is a combination of SEE1, invented initialized signs, and some ASL signs; the "proper" sign for various words is determined by the "2 out of 3 rule"
Sign-to-Voice
the part of the interpretation process in which the source language message is signed (ASL, LSQ, or a manual form of English) and the output is spoken Englishm French or another auditory language
Simultaneous Communication
speaking and signing at the same time (sometimes referred to as sim-com); research has demonstrated a variety of problems that result from the sumultaneous communication of hearing people including the omission of signs, semantic errors, unclear prodection of signs, and confused mouth markers
Simultaneous Interpretation or Simultaneous Transliteration
the process of interpreting/transiliterating into the targer language/code at the same time that the cource language message is being delivered
Size and Shape Specifiers
a specific subset of classifiers that function to describe various nouns; functions like English adjectives
Source Langauge (SL)
the language in which an original message is conveyed and upon which interpretation is based
Speaker Goal
the motivating purpose behind communication; includes a variety of things such as teaching, inspiring, conseling or guiding, teasing, scolding, threatening, clarifying, explaining, requesting, selling, and convincing; the outcome anticipated or desired effect of saying or signing something to another
Speech Reading
a skill employed by some deaf and HOH individuals to comprehend spoken communication; involves a combination or deciphering lip, cheek, and throat movements, clarifying gestures and use of closure skills to determine meaning
Strerotype
a standardized mental picture that is helf in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, effective attitude, or uncritical judgements
Support Group
a small groupo of professional peers committed to confidentiality, growth, honesty, and integrity
Target Language
the language into which a message is interpreted with equivalent meaning
Test of Interpretation (TOI)
the test of interpreting skills required for Certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC
Total Communication
original conception defined as using any means necesary to successfully communicate with a deaf child; adopted and redefined by the education system to mean speaking and signing at the same time
Translation
changing a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language; this is an emergine field for Deaf individuals
Translators
individuals who perform the work of translation
Transliteration
as used in the field of sign language inrepretation, is the result of taking a source language message, refers to conveying information between a spoken and signed form of English
Visual-Gestural Languages
based ona structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication base is the movement of the face and body rather than sound; sign languages throught the world fall into this catergory
Voice to Sign
the part of the interpretation process in which the source language message is spoken and the output is signed ASL, LSQ or a manual form of English
Work Settings
location where interpretation takes place and the number of clients being served; includes one-on-one, small groups, and large groups in such places as education, legal, medical, etc.
Written Test of Knowledge
the test of knowledge required as the first step toward certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC
Abstract Classifiers
classifiers that are smallerl than life size, the shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic features
Abstract Language
generic and lacking in specificity
Accessibility
modification to building design, program delivery, or forms of communciation which will allow Deaf and sicabled individuals to gain access to services provided by an institution or agency
Adventitous Deafness
to become deaf at some point after birth
Affect
refers to emotions or feelings
A Language
ones first language, usually the language your parents speak although this is not always the case, also known as mother tongue or native language
Ambivalence
having bother negative and positive feelings about somethingl common reaction of members of the oppressed group who have both positive and negative feelings about themselves and the minority group they are affiliated with
American Sign Language
a visual-gestural language incorporating facial grammatical markers, physical affect markers, spatial linguistic information and fingerspelling, as well as signs made with the hands
Deaf President Now (DPN)
protest that took place at Gallaudet that closed down the campus and staged marches on the US capitol.in 1988
Vicarious Trauma
trauma that results from observing another person's traumatic experience
Advocate
one who speaks out on issues on behalf of others
Ally
one who supports Deaf individuals in their own struggle for liberation
One-on-One
setting where you typically have one deaf and one hearing client who are using language in a give-and-take manner (ex: doctors office)
Small Groups
This setting is where you may have 3-20 people. (ex: group counseling, staff meeting, small classroom, or seminar)
Large Groups or Platform
usually more than 40-50 people in this setting. the speaker is often required to stand on the platform to be seen and heard
Functional Elements
an element found in the construction of English includes such things as articles (a, the, an) prepositions (on, for, with, to) and conjunctions (and, but, however)
Content Elements
an element found in the construction of English are made up of nouns, and verbs
Cohort Groups
a group of people who, because they were born within a few eyears of each other, experience many of the same historical and social conditions; people born in the same era are exposed to similar ideas, prevailing assumptions, critical public events, technologies, and popular trends
Communication Competence
situational and depends on cultures, personal history, and relationships of the individuals present
Contextual Environment
communication takes place in this setting. its made up of the physical location and the status of each participant
Role of Culture
for groups to seek out eachother for social interaction, emotional support, and physical safety.
"Crab Theory"
if a deaf person has some type of success, members of the deaf commnnity them in joy and celebration of the success for a period of time. However, then that individual has recieved an adequate amount of attention (it is hard to explain how the group members know when there has been enough), a group begging to change the conversation or to ignore the "star" if the acheiever insists on holding the spotlight group members will begin to make barbed comments and cutting remarks until the individial resumes their place as one of the group
Residential Schools
every physical need to be provided - food shelter books admission to special events, etc. There is a desire to be independant; there is often a fear of not being able to make it on ones own in the absence of this support. There is a belief that a deaf person cannot succeed on their own