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A legal entity formed in compliance with statutory requirements that is distinct from its shareholders-owners


that part of the earnings of a corporation that is distributed to its shareholders

Retained Earnings

The portion of a corporations profits that has not been paid out as dividends to shareholders

Holding Company

A company whose business activity is holding shares in another company

Domestic Corporation

In a given state, a corporation that does business in, and is organized undr the law, of that state

Foreign Corporation

In a given state, a corporation tht does business in the state without bieng incorporated their.

Alien Corporation

A designation in the united states for a corporation formed in another country but doing business in the U.S

Close Corporation

A corporation whose shareholders are limited to a small group of persons, often family members.

S corporation

A close business corporation that has met certain requirements set out in the internal revenue code, and thus qualifies for special income tax treatment. Taxed the same as a partnership, but its owners enjoy limited liability

Articles of Incorporation

A document filed with the appropriate govermental agency, usually the secretary of state, when a business is incorporated.


A set of governing rules adopted by a corporation or other association

Piercing the Corporate Viel

An action in which the court disregards the corporate entity and holds the shareholders personally liable for corporate debts and obligations


To mix funds or goods together to such a degree that they no longer have seperate identitie.


Generally, stocks, bonds, notes, debentures, warrants, or other items that evidence and ownership interest in a corporation or a promise of repayment by a corporation


An equity (ownership) interest in a corporation, measured in units of shares


A security that evidences a corporate (or goverment) debt. It does not repersent any type of ownership

Bond Indenture

A contract between the issur of a bond and the bondholder

Common Stock

Shares of ownership in a corporation that give the owner of the stock a proportianate interest in the company with regard to control, earnings, and net assets.

Preffered stock

Classes of stock that have priority over common stock as to both payment of dividends and distribution of assets on the corporations dissulution

venture Capital

Capital Funds provided by professional, outside investors, usually a groups of wealthy investors in private markets and use it to start new business ventures

Private equaity capital

Capital provided by private equity firms, which obtain the capital from wealthy investors in private markets and use it to in existing businesses

Inside director

A person on the board of directors who is also an officer in the corporation

Outside director

A person on the board of directors who does not hold a managment position in the corporation

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