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Holzborn music hum final
Terms in this set (78)
a designation referring to the throw of a die, that most European composes preferred to "chance" or "indeterminate"
GESANG DER JÜNGLINGE (Song of the Youths), 1955/56 - electronic music; (2) STUDIE I and II (1953/54)-electronic compositions
"In C"; based entirely on 53 brief melodic figures derived from standard patterns of 18th-century tonal music; In C consists of 53 short, numbered musical phrases, lasting from half a beat to 32 beats; each phrase may be repeated an arbitrary number of times
"phase shifting" playing two or more identical loops at slightly different speeds, eventually arrive again at synchronization;
(1) "Come Out"; (2) Piano Phase -2 pianos play single melodic pattern of 5 different pitches
Einstein on the Beach = opera; amplified winds, keyboards and voices; solo violinist (dressed as Einstein) functions as musician and a character in the opera
late 20-century style involving many repetitions of musical fragments
In the most advanced style. Embraced by radical artists and intellectuals to denote the forefront of their activity.
A french artistic and modernist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was when people were astonished by the flickering network of color patches used by impressionist painters to render simple scenes from everyday life. These painters claimed that they had to develop such a technique to catch the actual, perceived quality of light.
A late 19th century movement in the arts that emphasized suggestion rather than precise reference. It was a consciously unrealistic movement when the poets revolted against the "realism" of words being used for reference-for the purpose of exact definition or denoting. The meaning of a cluster of words might be vague and ambiguous, even esoteric-but also rich, "musical", and endlessly suggestive.
A German movement in the arts which sought to express the most extreme human feelings by divorcing art from everyday literalness. Anguish, even hysteria, could be conveyed by the harsh clashing of strong colors, irregular shapes, and jagged lines. It is the artist's inner turbulence which is depicted.
A five-note scale playable on the black notes of a piano, imported from folk song and Asian music. Debussy featured a pentatonic theme in Clouds.
Divides the octave into six equal parts-all of its intervals are whole steps; it yields a dreamy, ambiguous sound that Debussy particularly prized.
Fits eight pitches into the octave by alternating whole and half steps. Specialized by Stravinsky.
The "new language" for music invented in the 1920s by Arnold Schoenberg. This in effect creates something like a special scale for every serial composition. It is the technique of composing with a series, generally a twelve-tone series. Can be regarded as a systematization of the chromaticism developed by Romantic composers.
As melody grew more complex and harmony grew more dissonant, tonality grew more indistinct. Music reached a point at which no tonal center could be detected at all, which are atonal music. It is the absence of any feeling of tonality, which is the feeling of centrality, focus, or homing toward a particular pitch that we get from simple tunes and much other music.
A 20th century movement involving a return to the style and form of older music, particularly 18th century music.
An extreme example of the avant-garde composer's search for new expressive means-here, sound that is not even fully organized into pitches.
method of composing with twelve tones solely in relation to one another-that is, not in relation to a central pitch, or tonic, which is no longer the point of reference for music.
twelve-tone row (or series)
An ordering of all twelve notes of the chromatic scale, used in composing serial music.
A form developed by the Classical composers and used in almost all the first movements of their symphonies, sonatas, etc. (Exposition, development, recapitulation, cadence phases)
A musical form consisting of one main theme or tune alternating with other themes or sections.
The first section of a sonata-form movement
The second section of a sonata-form movement, which features the development process
The third section of a sonata-form movement
Music composed with natural sounds recorded electronically. After WWII, composers began incorporating the sounds of life into their compositions. This they called "concrete" music because it used actual sound, as contrasted with the abstract products of electronic sound generators.
A type of contemporary music in which certain elements, such as the order of the notes or their pitches, are not specified by the composer but are left to chance.
Minimalist music uses very simple melodies, motives, and harmonies repeated many, many times. Unconcerned with indeterminacy, they were, rather, interested in bringing music back to a more elementary foundation, freeing it from the accumulated weight of Western conventions, starting from ground zero, as it were.
Music that has been brought to this country and consciously developed, fostered at concerts, and taught in conservatories.
music we sing and hear as naturally as we speak our native tongue.
Simple anthems based on hymns, with a little counterpoint.
A type of variety show popular in 19th century America, performed in black face.
call and response
In African and early African American music, a style in which a phrase by a leading singer or soloist is answered by a larger group or chorus, and the process is repeated again and again.
Religious folk song that came into being outside an established church.
In jazz, a brief solo improvisation between song phrases. They add ornaments and newly contrived interludes.
Occurs when some of the accents in music are moved away from the main beats, the beats that are normally accented.
Derived from African drumming, accents are moved just a fraction of a beat ahead of the metrical points. When this happens in just the right way, the music is said to "swing."
A special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade. It is an essential expression of African American experience.
A style of piano playing developed by black musicians playing in bars, dives and brothels. This led to jazz.
Ecstatic choral singing in evangelical church services, with high-flying sopranos over the background rhythms of the congregation - grew up at the same time as the blues and ragtime.
10 to 25 players - and such large numbers required carefully written out arrangements of the songs played.
a type of big-band jazz of the late 1930s and 1940s. Uses a strong rhythm section of double bass and drums as the anchor for a lead section of brass instruments such as trumpets and trombones, woodwinds including saxophones and clarinets, and sometimes stringed instruments such as violin and guitar, medium to fast tempos, and a "lilting" swing time rhythm
a style of jazz characterized by fast tempo, instrumental virtuosity and improvisation based on the combination of harmonic structure and melody.
The creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
The intentional utilization of some degrees of chance in composition and/or performance. In its most radical form, all sounds have equal value: sounds chosen by the composer, by the performer, and all the unforeseen and unpredictable sounds that surround us every day.
The performer or performers are to remain silent.
Playing two or more identical loops at slightly different speeds, so that the repetitions gradually move apart from one another and eventually arrive again at synchronization. (Two compositions exploiting this was Come Out and Piano Phase by Reich)
Individual decision-making is immediate, necessary and basic; when to play or not, when to modify activity in any number of parameters (loudness, pitch, tone), when to imitate or ignore another participant, when to agree the performance is concluding. When to make a decision. And why.
The rite of spring
The unanswered question
45' for a speaker
Etude aux chemins de fer
Symphonie pour un homme seul
Gesang Der Junglinge
Einstein on the beach
Sinfonia to Cantata # 29
Bye bye butterfly
If you ever been down blues
Parker and Davis
Out of nowhere
Cobra - pendet
Bitches Brew, bebop - electric guitar and keyboard + jazz
Schaeffer, Russolo (Futurism), Pierre Henry
3 inventions : (1) magnetic tape, (2) synthesizer & (3) computer
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