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Mrs. Green's Earth Science SOL Review Volume 1
Review for the Virginia Earth Science SOL
Terms in this set (100)
the amount of light a star actually gives off
precipitation that is more acidic than normal because of air pollution
a body of air that has about the same temperature and moisture throughout
layer of permeable rock that allows water to flow through
rock or metal fragments made up of material similar to that which formed the planets, found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
What is the tilt of Earth's axis?
dense, dark-colored igneous rocks formed from magma rich in magnesium and iron
low area on Earth in which an ocean formed when the area filled with water from torrential rains
marine plants or animals that live on the bottom of the ocean floor
big bang theory
states that about 13.7 billion years ago the universe began with a big, fiery explosion
renewable energy derived from burning organic materials such as wood and alcohol
final stage in the evolution of a very massive star where the core's mass collapses to a point that it's gravity is so strong that not even light can escape
large, circular-shaped opening formed when the top of a volcano collapses
a type of body fossil that forms when crystals fill a mold or sediments wash into a mold and harden into rock
sedimentary rock-forming process
Who lived during the Cenozoic Era?
homo sapiens (humans) appeared 400,000 years ago during this era which started about 66 million years ago
chemical reactions which dissolve minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals
chemical compounds found in refrigerators, AC units, and aerosol sprays that may enter the atmosphere and destroy the ozone layer
cinder cone volcano
steep-sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground
physical property of some minerals that causes them to break along smooth, flat surfaces
average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time; can be classified by temperature, humidity, precipitation, and vegetation
sedimentary rock formed from decayed plant material; the world's most abundant fossil fuel
process that forms sedimentary rocks when layers of sediments are compressed by the weight of the layers above them
volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava; found mostly where Earth's plates come together and one sinks below the other
process where water vapor turns into a liquid
transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other
group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky that looks like a familiar object
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
a steep incline leading down from the edge of the continental shelf
line on a map that connects points of equal elevation
standard for comparison in an experiment
transfer of heat by the flow of material
current in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in earth's interior and is the driving force for plate tectonics
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
outermost, largest layer of the Sun's atmosphere
highest point of a wave
Photosynthetic, oxygen-producing bacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae).
relationship of the mass and volume of an object
circulation pattern in the ocean that forms when a mass of more dense seawater sinks beneath less dense seawater (also known as deep ocean current)
the variable that is measured in an experiment
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms
igneous rock feature formed when magma is squeezed into a vertical crack that cuts across rock layers and hardens underground
Vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault
elongated, closed curve that describes Earth's yearlong orbit around the Sun
the name given to the periodic warming of the ocean that occurs in the central and eastern Pacific
the largest division of geologic time
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
a subdivision of geologic time that is longer than an age but shorter than a period
an imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole, found at 0 degrees
either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
a unit of geologic time that includes two or more periods
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
A crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
a stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground
term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands
a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago
any remains, impression, or trace of a living thing of a former geologic age, as a skeleton, footprint, etc.
The way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses
phase of the moon that occurs when all of the Moon's surface facing Earth reflects light
large group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity; can be elliptical, spiral, or irregular
beautiful, rare, highly prized mineral that can be worn in jewelry
geologic time scale
the division of Earth history into blocks of time largely based on the types of life-forms that lived only during certain periods
inexhaustible energy resource that uses hot magma or hot, dry rocks from below Earth's surface to generate electricity
late stage in the life of a main sequence star when hydrogen in the core is used up; the core contracts and temperatures inside the star increase, causing its outer layers to expand and cool
a large mass of moving ice and snow on land
a rise in average global temperatures
light-colored, silica-rich igneous rock that is less dense than basaltic rock.
Great Red Spot
giant, high pressure storm in Jupiter's atmosphere
process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space
water that soaks into the ground and collects in pores and empty spaces and is an important source of drinking water
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
What do we use to test hardness?
each layer in a soil profile
What is located in Horizon A?
humus, organic matter, leaf litter (top)
What is located in Horizon B?
What is located in Horizon C?
leaching, clay soils
What is located below Horizon C?
bedrock or parent material
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
amount of water vapor in the air
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
a large, powerful windstorm that forms over warm ocean waters
electrical energy produced by falling water
Mechanical weathering process that occurs when water freezes in the cracks of rocks and expands, causing the rock to break apart
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
characteristic of materials through which water does not easily pass, such as clay and granite
variable that is changed in an experiment
fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during only one short period
a type of igneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
A line that connects points having the same pressure
lines connecting points of equal temperature values
a narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere
largest planet and fifth planet from the Sun; has faint rings, seventeen moons, an atmosphere formed mostly of hydrogen and helium, and its surface has continuous storms
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