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11 terms

Minerals and Vitamins

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To what main two molecules is iron bound in human cells?
To what main two molecules is iron bound in blood?
Cells- myoglobin (muscle) & ferritin (liver)
Blood- hemoglobin & transferrin
What are some of the clinical effects of zinc deficiency?
Delayed wound healing, Acrodermatitis enterophepathica (rash around eyes, nose, anus), Anorexia, Diarrhea, Growth retardation in children, depressed mental function, Impaired night vision, Infertility, ↓ body and facial hair, hypogonadism, anosmia (cant smell), dysgeusia (cant taste)
What are some of the clinical effects of hypocalcemia?
• Tetany & neuromuscular irritability - involuntary contractions of muscles
Chvostek sign
Due to hypocalcemia and resultant tetany
Chvostek sign → Cheek → Tapping of facial n. causes
contraction of facial mm.
Trousseau's sign
Due to hypocalcemia and resultant tetany
Trousseau's sign → Tight in the cuff → Occlusion of
brachial artery with BP cuff triggers carpal spasm
What might you see in an erythrocyte of a patient with lead poisoning? other features
basophilic stippling
LEAD → Lead lines on gingivae (Burton's lines) and on epiphyses of long bones on x-ray;
Encephalopathy and Erythrocyte basophilic stippling; Abdominal colic and sideroblastic Anemia;
Drops (foot and wrist)
What enzymes involved in hemoglobin synthesis are inhibited by lead toxicity?
Ferrochelatase
ALA dehydratase
What organs are primarily affected by an excess of cadmium?
kidney, bones (osteporosis/osteomalacia), lung (lung cancer risk)
What organs are primarily affected by an excess of mercury?
kidney, brain
What is the most likely scenario that a person would receive toxic exposure to arsenic?
living in an arsenic-rich region and ingesting ground water with arsenic
what are the 2 water soluble vitamins that are stored in the liver
B12 and folate