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Great Depression/New Deal
Throughout most of the 1920's, Americans were generally confident that what?
Business would continue to bring prosperity
What was one sign that the economy might be weakening in the 1920's?
Uneven distribution of wealth
Why were European economies hurt during the Great Depression?
Because US companies stopped investing in Germany
Who often lost their jobs to white laborers during the Great Depression?
What brought an end to Prohibition in 1933?
The 21st Amendment
What happened to stock in the 1920's?
Stock prices rose and the economy appeared healthy
Who faced hard times during the 1920's?
What was a sign of an unsound economy during the 1920's?
That more goods were being produced than consumers could buy
How did most investors react to the sudden fall in stock prices in 1929?
They sold their stocks
Who experienced worsening conditions and discrimination in job and relief programs during the Great Depression?
Who believed that the best strategy for ending the Depression was encouraging voluntary controls in the business sector?
What happened in the Election of 1932?
The candidates disagreed about what role the federal government should play in fixing people's problems
What caused a wave of panic in the stock market that led to a panic of selling?
A sudden fall in stock prices in the fall of 1929
The stock market crash of 1929 affected millions of Americans, many of whom...?
Had never owned stocks
What did the Stock Market Crash of 1929 lead to?
Unemployment for millions of workers
What did the collapse of the American economic system lead to?
A worldwide depression
What was one of the causes of the Great Depression?
The unstable economy in the United States
Which levels of society did wage cuts and unemployment affect?
Who was hit the hardest by the Great Depression?
What did the rise in homelessness mainly result from?
Laid-off workers losing their homes
What did Dorothea Lange's photographs of migrant workers help?
Win aid for the workers
What declined as a result of poor diet and anxiety?
People's physical and mental health
Who lost their jobs to white laborers?
Many members of minority groups during the Great Depression
What did most people in the "Depression generation" avoid buying?
Expensive items on credit
What did many people do when foreclosed farms were auctioned?
Kept bids low and gave the property back to the farmer who owned it
Who gained support because of terrible conditions during the Great Depression?
The Socialist Party
Who worked together to seek social justice?
Radicals and Reformists
What did people use to fight hard times and despair?
What was a goal for repealing Prohibition?
Curb gangster activity
What was a symbol of hope for many in the Great Depression?
The Empire State Building
Who was a symbol of hope for labor in the 1920's but became an enemy of labor in the 1930's?
Who tried to end the Depression by voluntary controls by American businesses?
What did the Reconstruction Finance Corporation aim to do?
Give banks government credit
Who was appealing to Americans because of his spirit of optimism?
What did FDR work vigorously to do as governor of New York?
Give relief for the jobless
What did FDR do to win the Election of 1932?
He promised a New Deal for Americans
What made the Election of 1932 a turning point?
It signaled a greater role of government in American Society
What did FDR do in his first few months in office?
He pushed legislation through Congress to improve the economy
What did the National Industrial Recovery Act aim to do?
Help business by industrial prices
What was the "black cabinet"?
An unofficial group of African American officeholders
How did First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt defy tradition?
By actively and aggressively promoting the New Deal
How were FDR's first hundered days in office spent?
Convincing Congress to pass legislation to improvet he economy
How did FDR try to help business?
By stabilizing industrial prices
How did FDR try to help farmers?
By giving financial assistance to them
How did Eleanor Roosevelt help FDR?
By reporting on conditions in the country
What was the Second New Deal?
Legislation that aimed at helping ordinary Americans
What happened in the Election of 1936?
FDR won the reelection in a landslide
What did the massive government spending of the New Deal lead to?
Some short-term economic improvement
What happened under the New Deal?
Labor unions were legalized and grew stronger
Why were sit-down strikes for labor unions so successful?
The Supreme Court outlawed them
Which New Deal programs still exist today?
FDIC, TVA, and the SEC
What did the use of the assembly line enable Henry Ford to do?
Take advantage of the economies of scale, which reduced costs.
Why did FDR push Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Act?
So the government could inspect banks to assure people that their banks were healthy and would not fail
What were causes of the Great Depression?
Uneven distribution of wealth, over speculation, and mistakes in monetary policy
What was one reason FDR launched the Second New Deal?
In response to criticism that the New Deal was not doing enough for ordinary Americans
What led to the busness boom of the decade?
Consumers buying on installment credit, the growth of industries, and the laissez-faire policies in the 1920's
What caused a national culture to emerge in the 1920's?
People across the country shared interests, tastes, and attitudes due to the rapid development of mass media
Why did the Social Security tax fuel the recession of 1937?
Because it took money directly from people's paychecks so they had less money to spend