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45 terms

Physical Science Chapter 9

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A compound is a
pure substance, composed of combinations of atoms an held together by chemical bonds
the smallest unit of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other elements is
atom
the smallest particle of a compound or gaseous element that can exist and still retain the characteristics properties of that substance is a
molecule
what determines the chemical properties of an atom?
neutrons and protons
atoms attempt to acquire an outer orbital with eight electrons
Helsenberg certainty theory
the family or group number of the representative elements represents the
atomic number
what is the chemical symbol for a magnesium ion?
Mg-
Atoms that achieve an octet by sharing electrons form
metallic bonds
the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called a
metallic bond
the energy released during the formation of an ionic bond is
heat of formation
the comparative ability of atoms of an element to attract bonding electrons is called
electronegativity
what kind of bond had unequal sharing of bonding electrons?
polar covalent
the correct name for the compound CS2 is
carbon disulfide
what is the formula for the compound zinc chloride?
ZnCl2
pure substances that cannot be broken down into anything simpler are
elements
chemical energy is defined as
change of internal potential energy during a chemical reaction
a metallic bond is defined by
it is formed in solid materials, metal atoms share a sea of electrons, it accounts for metallic properties such as conductivity and luster
an ion can be described as an element or compound
gains or loses electrons
you know that a chemical reaction is taking place if
chemical bonds are formed and broken
what is the relationship between the energy released in burning materials produced by photosynthesis and the solar system that was absorbed in making the materials?
the same as the solar energy absorbed
the electrons that participate in chemical bonding are the
valence electrons
atoms of the representative elements have a tendency to seek stability through
filling or emptying their outer orbitals
an ion is formed when an atom of a representative element
loses or gains electrons to satisfy the octet rule
an atom of an element in family VIA will have what charge when it is ionized?
-2
which type of chemical bond is formed by a transfer of electrons
metallic
which type of chemical bond is formed between two atoms by the sharing of two electrons, with one electron from each atom?
covalent
what types of compounds are salts, such as sodium chloride?
ionic compounds
what is the chemical formula if there are two bromide ions for each barium ion in a compound?
BaBr2
Which combination of elements forms crystalline solids that will dissolve in water, producing a solution of ions that can conduct an electric current?
metal and nonmetal
in a single covalent bond between two atoms, a
pair of electrons, one from each atom is shared
sulfur and oxygen are both in the VIA family of the periodic table and a second is in the VIA family. What type of compound will these two elements form?
X2S
One element is in the IA family of the periodic table, and a second is in the VIIA family. What type of compound will the two elements form?
ionic
a covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of bonding electrons is a
polar covalent bond
an inorganic compound made of only two different elements has a systematic name that always eneds with the suffix
-ide
di-hydrogen monoxide is the systematic name for a compound that has the common name of
water
propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reactants in this reaction are propane and
released
Propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. For this reaction, energy is
released
Which is not true of an ionic bond? it involves
sharing of electrons
What is the correct formula for magnesium chloride?
MgCl2
what is the formula for the sulfate ion?
(SO4)2-
The correct name for the compound NaNO3 is
sodium nitrate
a nonmetal atom combines with a second nonmetal atom. The first nonmetal atom
shares electrons with the second nonmetal atom
polar covalent bonds result when the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is
between 0.5 and 1.7
what is the formula for the compound aluminum bromide?
AlBr3
The combination of nonmetals with nonmetals forms
covalent compounds