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APES chapter 6/7/8/9 Test
Terms in this set (75)
What is biodiversity?
variety and variability of species, genes and ecosystems. Named by E O Wilson. Refers to the variety of life forms, commonly expressed as the number of species in an area or the number of genetic types in an area
What is the underlying cause of biodiversity?
New species arise as the result of competition for resources and the difference among individuals in their adaptations to environmental conditions. Since the environment continually changes, which individuals are best adapted changes too
What is meant by biological evolution?
Refers to the change in inherited characteristics of a population from one generation to the next
What is meant by natural selection?
The process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators,changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind,thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations.
When cells divide, the DNA is reproduced and each cell gets a new copy. Sometimes an error occurs in the reproduction of DNA and therefore changes the inherited characteristics.When DNA changes in any way (radiation can break DNA apart or change it's chemical structure), it has undergone mutation.
When species migrate to new areas and have to adapt to their new conditions they change so that they can no longer reproduce together. Two new species have evolved from the original species.
Changed in the frequency of a gene population not due to mutation, selection, or migration, but rather by chance. Chance may determine which individuals become isolated in a small group from a larger population and thus which genetic characteristics are most common in that isolated population.
How does the example of mosquitoes and the malaria parasite illustrate biological evolution in action?
Mosquitoes carry malaria, the WHO wanted to eradicate it so they used DDT to do so. This worked at first since many malaria carrying mosquitoes died, however they became resistant to DDT and the number of mosquitoes climbed back up. This is an example of mosquitoes adapting and mutating through natural selection.
When a species diverges over time into two different species, resulting in a species becoming less like the original one, Live in different ways than the common ancestor, Caused by migration or nearby extinction of a nearby environment, Prime example are the dinosaurs
Convergent evolution takes place when species of different ancestry begin to share analogous traits because of a shared environment or other selection pressure. For example, whales and fish have some similar characteristics since both had to evolve methods of moving through the same medium: water.
What is adaptive radiation? (ch 8)
This process is where a species (finches) that are isolated from other species on the continents eventually separated into a number of groups, each adapted to a more specialized role.
The total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species, subspecies, or group of new species. Total number of genes, active or not; or total number of active genes
The different kinds of habitats in a given unit area
Has three qualities (richness, evenness, and dominance)
total number of species
the relative abundance of species
the most abundant in biomass or frequency
How many species are there on Earth?
No one knows the exact number because species are discovered all the time
1.9 x 106 have been classified, estimates are as high as 100 x 106
What types of organisms are most abundant?
insects and plants make up most of the known species
What is an ecological niche?
What it does for a living
How is it different from a habitat?
Different b/c habitat is where a species lives
What are the characteristics of a specialist species and a generalist species?
Generalist- able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources
Specialist- can only thrive in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.
What is meant by competition?
When the outcome of the interaction is negative for both groups
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
This states that 2 species that have the exact same requirements cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat.
How does competition increase biodiversity?
Competition causes species to develop a particular niche instead of dying out. Different niches lead to the creation of new species which increases biodiversity.
What is symbiosis/mutualism? Give an example.
Interaction that benefits both participants. A crocodile needs a plover bird to clean his teeth. Hence, both the animal and the bird have something to win; the plover bird gets to eat the food between the crocodile's teeth, while the crocodile gets cleaner mouth to keep surviving and hunting. Also for humans, resident bacteria help our digestion of food, and we provide a habitat for the bacteria that supplies all of their needs.
Describe and cite examples of parasitism and predation.
This is a relationship where the outcome benefits one participant, but harms the other. Predation, for example, is where a predator feeds on another live organism (the prey). Whereas parasitism is occurs when one organism (the parasite) lives on or in the other (the host). The parasite depends on the host, but the host may be harmed by this relationship.
What is biogeography and why is an understanding of biogeography important?
Biogeography is the large scale geographic pattern in the distribution of species.
of the North or northern regions. Relating to or characteristic of the climatic zone south of the Arctic, especially the cold temperate region dominated by taiga and forests of birch, poplar, and conifers.
of, relating to, or denoting a region or climate characterized by mild temperatures.
resembling the tropics, especially in being very hot and humid.
What is island biogeography and why is it important?
2 sources of new species on an island are migration from the mainland and evolution of new species (Darwin's theory) Islands have fewer species than continents, smaller the island the fewer the species, farther the island is from the mainland the fewer the species.
What is an ecological island?
This is a comparatively small habitat separated from a major habitat of the same kind. I.E. a pond in the woods of Michigan is an ecological island relative to the Great Lakes
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
when the interaction between two species leads to changes in the prescenes or absence of other species or in a large change in abundance of other species, then a community effect is said to have occurred
organisms such as bacteria and fungi, that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
(1) A conceptual or functional meaning: a set of interacting species that occur in the same place (sometimes extended to mean a set that interacts in a way to sustain life), (2) An operational meaning: a set of species found in an area, whether or not they are interacting
the pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms; a linkage of who feeds on whom
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem; a series of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community
the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established; the process of establishment and development of an ecosystem
all organisms that are the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy (for example, sunlight) that enters an ecosystem. For example, all producers belong to the first trophic level, and all herbivores belong to the second trophic level in a food chain or a food web
an area of land that forms the drainage of a stream or river
cells do not have membrane bound organelles, e g bacteria
cells have a distinct nucleus, membrane bound organelles
single celled, prokaryotic organisms (ex: bacteria, cyanobacteria)
mostly one celled eukaryotic organisms (ex: Paramecium, Amoebas, protozoan and "algae")
multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, all or part motile. [ex: Invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods) and vertebrates ( fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals)]
multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic, cells contain chlorophyll and cell walls of cellulose [ex: (mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants)]
multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, decomposers with cell walls of chitin [ex: (mushrooms, molds, mildews and yeasts)]
single celled, prokaryotic, major biochemical differences from bacteria. Many live in extreme environments (methanogens, thermoacidiphiles)
change in gene frequencies of a population over time
natural selection (Darwin's contribution)
Variation in inherited traits
Adaptation: trait that enables organisms to survive
More organisms are produced than can survive
Some variants are more likely to survive ("fitness")
species evolve slowly, small changes add up
intermediate forms between extant(living) and extinct species
punctuated equilibrium: (S J Gould)
Periods of rapid divergence alternating with periods of stability
refers to complex interactions that involve evolutionary adaptations between 2 species. Examples: Acacia tree and ants, flowering plants and their pollinators
Why are there so many species? Why is it that competition doesn't lead to fewer species?
Species evolve to fit into particular habitats and there are so many various and different habitats around the earth. There are environmental niches that the species fit into. Competition does not lead to fewer species because they move to different niches to accommodate.
functional position in ecosystem
place or type of places where a species can live. Diverse habitats and environmental variations increase species diversity
competition for same resources
Competitive exclusion principle
2 species with same requirements cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat; they will assume different niches
Symbiosis: living together *text defines as mutualism, is used more broadly
relationship beneficial to both - very common.
benefits parasite, detrimental to host
kill and eat live prey
Value of biodiversity (to humans)
Direct and indirect values:
Economic and utilitarian (building materials, clothing, food)
recreation and ecotourism
medicines and botanicals
genetic bank, potential to preserve future biodiversity
Option value - may benefit humans in future
Production for food webs
Biogeochemical cycling C sink, N fixation, denitrification)
Preservation of water and soil quality
Population controls ( predators and competitors)
Threats to biodiversity
habitat destruction and fragmentation
Degradation, pollution, poison
Overexploitation, over harvesting
E O Wilson: The biggest threats to biodiversity: HIPPO
Habitat loss, Invasive species, Pollution, Population growth, Over harvesting
non-native, inroduced(ex: Cane Toads, Kudzu); harmful to human health, environment, and/or economy
native to an area
found wherever appropriate habitats exists (ex: mice)
found everywhere (rats, humans, cockroaches) more genetic plasticity
Under what conditions is an introduced species able to become invasive?
If they are able to compete with native species for resources and food. The introduced species has to be able to thrive in the new environment with conditions, climate, temperature. They have to be able to adapt to the new environment. Lack of predators. Easier prey to catch/more food.
A type of large ecosystem with characteristic climate and biota.
Remember: an ecosystem contains multiple species interacting with each other and with non-living (abiotic) factors
A climatograph shows temperature and precipitation patterns
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