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120 terms

History 120 Exam 3

Just an exam over Chapters 9-14
A major result of the growth of revivalism and reform was
the growth of a common set of values that linked the business elite to the middle class.
British textile manufacturers possessed all of the following advantages over American manufacturers except
abundant cotton production at home.
Nativist clubs were formed to support, among other causes,
the exclusive use of the Protestant version of the Bible in public schools.
New York City's economic advantages included all of the following except
the fact that it was the state capital.
Cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans grew rapidly in the 1830s because
they were located at points where goods were transferred from one mode of transportation to another.
In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court struck down a New York law that created a monopoly on steamboat travel into New York City, an important ruling because it
prevented state and local laws from restricting interstate trade.
Fast-growing western cities had what in common?
flourishing commercial centers
One consequence of the Industrial Revolution in America during the 1830s and 1840s was that it
increased the standard of living of many Americans.
The modern factory was an example of
new organizational techniques.
The two million Irish who entered the United States between the 1840 and 1860 encountered discrimination because they were
American mechanical institutes were important because they
spread mechanical knowledge and skills.
When southern cotton producers expanded and moved west, they moved primarily to
Missouri and Arkansas.
American manufacturers turned to women as a source of labor because
women would work for lower wages than would most men.
The Market Revolution in America was set in motion by the construction of
a railroad linking New York with Cincinnati and the Ohio River Valley.
The Erie Canal was so successful because it
linked the economies of the Midwest and the Northeast.
The publication of Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography
made popular the concept of the self-made man.
In 1820, faced with a demand for cheap farmsteads, Congress
reduced the price of federal land.
Factories relied on which of the following to increase productivity?
division of labor
Labor unions fought for all of the following except
prohibition of alcohol in the workplace
The free workers who faced the worst working and living conditions were
casual laborers
The group that stood to benefit the most from the Tariff of 1828 was
northeastern manufacturers
The Panic of 1837 was caused by
The Bank of England's decision to curtail the flow of money and credit to the United States.
Andrew Jackson's legacy included all of the following except
he weakened the Union and advocated states' rights.
The new Democratic coalition included all of the following except
Protestant reformers
In the election of 1828, Andrew Jackson drew support from all of following groups except
northeastern manufacturers
In his Supreme Court decisions regarding the Cherokees and the state of Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall stated that the
Indian peoples were "domestic dependent nations" but also "distinct political communities" with rights to their lands.
The fundamental purpose behind South Carolina's nullification of the federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 was to
check federal power before it could be used to abolish slavery.
The Whig Party included all of the following groups except
northern immigrants
Andrew Jackson's first priority upon entering office was to
destroy the American System.
The log cabin campaign was most noteworthy for
the use of modern campaign tactics by the Whigs
President Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank
and justified his decision with a masterful public statement that led to the victory in the 1832 election
As president, John Quincy Adam's support of the American System led to his backing all of the following except
Indian removal from lands desired by white settlers
Following the election of 1836, politically active workers tended to support
the Democrats
The practice of appointing loyal members of the winning party in an election to public office, as occurred under President Jackson, became known as
the spoils system
The presidential election of 1824 was the last stand of the notables because
elections after 1824 would be dominated by modern parties with broad social bases
President Jackson strengthened the presidency when he did all of the following except
use the power of the federal government to construct roads and implement protective tariffs
Whig success was undermined almost as soon as it was acquired because
William Henry Harrison died only a month into office and was succeeded by John Tyler.
The democratization of politics in the 1820s was the result of all of the following except
the extension of the franchise to women
In his view of states' rights, John C. Calhoun believed that
a state convention could declare a federal law null and void within that state's borders.
John Quincy Adams favored the American System because
he wanted to help northern businessmen and commercial farmers.
The most common response of white Americans to the abolition movement was
opposition to the movement.
Both moral reformers and women's rights activists focused their energies primarily on helping
other women
Both an abolitionist and a supporter of women's rights, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin was
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionists' strategies for eliminating slavery in America included all of the following except
purchasing slaves' freedom through a massive program of remuneration to southern masters.
Urban popular culture was a product of
the thousands of young rural people who flocked to cities in search of fortune and adventure.
Before the Civil War, women in the state of New York achieved all of the following except
the right to vote.
Between 1836 and 1844, the federal government responded to abolition by
suppressing the debate of antislavery petitions in Congress.
In Virginia in August 1831, close to sixty whites were brutally slain in a violent slave revolt led by
Nat Turner
Women's involvement in moral reform was evidence of their desire
to extend their moral authority outside the home.
Emerson's ideas most closely resembled
Charles Grandison Finney's "moral free agency."
The Mormon practice of polygamy
was opposed by some Mormons as well as by non-Mormon Christians.
William Lloyd Garrison's insistence on broadening the abolitionist agenda split the organization by pushing out those who
did not support women's rights.
Herman Melville came to the conclusion that extreme individualism led to
madness and death.
Moral reform was primarily a women's movement to
end prostitution
Free blacks in the North sought to encourage emancipation and race equality through all of the following except
the bribing of southern slaveholders
The Mormons differed from other communal experiments in their
emphasis on traditional patriarchal authority.
The campaign for abolition inspired women to seek equal rights because
slavery gave them a point of comparison for their own condition.
Southerners responded to the abolitionist movement and to fears of slave rebellion in all of the following ways except
ending the foreign slave trade.
Ralph Waldo Emerson encouraged listeners and readers to seek transcendence beyond the limits of ordinary existence because he wanted them to
celebrate individualism and energize the American spirit.
Ideas that the Shakers supported include all of the following except
complex marriage
The domestic slave trade was
the transportation and economic system that brought black slaves to the Cotton South.
Tobacco-growing elite planters were characterized by all of the following criteria except
they experienced historical changes similar to the rice planters of South Carolina.
The Chesapeake region contributed to the domestic slave trade by
selling surplus African American slaves to the New South.
African Americans resisted slavery in all of the following ways except
kidnapping prominent whites and holding them for ransom as hostages
The federal government played a major role in the expansion of slavery to the New South through all of the following ways except
investing in railroads and other industrial development projects in the 1810s.
All of the following were reasons for the development of a unified African American culture except
tribal identity
The South in the early 1800s was characterized by
a high geographical mobility and a desire to extend slavery into the West
The domestic slave trade impacted the southern economy in all of the following ways except
it brought large numbers of European immigrants to the South.
Middle-class planters were characterized by all of the following criteria except
they did not play a substantial role in slave society.
The population of free blacks compared to the overall population of African Americans in the United States between 1790 and 1860 is characterized by
a pattern of increase until 1840, followed by a slight reduction by 1860
African American religion was characterized by all of the following factors except
an early, deep, and abiding faith in original sin.
African Americans mounted few major slave revolts due to all of the following reasons except
they suffered from an inability to resist enslavement in general
The gang-labor system in the New South was characterized by
large work crews supervised by a black driver and a white overseer.
Yeoman farmers were characterized by all of the following criteria except
they were not influenced by the patriarchal ideology of the South.
African American resistance was characterized by all of the following factors except
slaves refrained from attacking white masters and overseers.
Most families in African American slave societies were characterized by
stable relationships, defined by extended family relations and regulated by taboos against incest.
The domestic slave trade impacted African American families by
destroying one in four slave marriages.
Free blacks in the South
were often denied a jury trial if accused of a crime.
Free blacks living in the North in the early nineteenth century were
discriminated against in the job market, usually not allowed to vote, and often segregated in churches, schools, and public life.
African American religion included all of the following African cultural elements except
the strong influence of Islam in shaping the content of black Protestant Christianity.
John L. O'Sullivan's notion of Manifest Destiny
embodied the dreams of American expansionists.
The direct results of the Fugitive Slave Act included all of the following except
the formation of the Republican Party
As a congressman during the Mexican War, Lincoln supported
both the war and the Wilmot Proviso.
Southerners feared John Brown most because
they believed he represented the goals of the Republican Party
The Wilmot Proviso did all of the following except
pass through both houses of Congress with the support of an antiwar coalition
Texas won its independence from Mexico because of
hundreds of Americans who flocked to Texas and helped to defeat the Mexican army.
The Republican Party drew the least support from
the Know-Nothing Party.
Texas was annexed after
Congress passed a joint resolution
In Dred Scott v. Sandford in 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney made all of the following points except
the platform of the Republican Party was unconstitutional
Events in Kansas seemed to demonstrate that popular sovereignty would lead
to violence
Lincoln's ambition propelled him into politics after having been raised by
an impoverished yeoman farming family
The Compromise of 1850, hammered out by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Stephen Douglas, included all of the following except
the granting to Texas of all the land west of Texas to the Rio Grande.
For Lincoln, the great threat of the "Slave Power" was that it would
making slavery legal everywhere
After the election of 1858, the southern Democrats split into two groups; the moderates, who were known as Southern Rights Democrats, supported
an ironclad commitment to protect slavery in the territories
The southern conventions considered secession in 1850, but southern states did not secede then because
not ready military
Southern planters were most worried about the expansionist plans of
Great Britain
The free-soil concept achieved significant popular support because
it stressed protection of white economic opportunity in the West.
A number of Whigs opposed the Mexican War because they
believed it was part of an immoral conspiracy by southerners to expand the institution of slavery.
In 1854, politically speaking, Abraham Lincoln was a
Republican and former Whig who supported a moderate gradualist view on abolition.
In 1848, supporters of the plan to extend the Missouri Compromise line west included
James Buchanan.
All of the following states in the Upper South stayed in the Union except
Vicksburg was an important target for the Union armies because
its capture divided the Confederacy along the Mississippi River.
To wage total war, the Union government did all of the following except
pass an Alien and Sedition Act to arrest and imprison critics of the government.
Ulysses S. Grant's campaign in Virginia in the spring and summer of 1864
caused severe casualties for both armies but did not end the war.
After the Union victory at Gettysburg, President Lincoln expected
the war to go on indefinitely
Secession came earliest in states
with the highest concentration of slaves
To provide income to fund the war effort, the Confederacy relied upon
King Cotton
African American slaves who escaped across Confederate lines to Union military camps were labeled
The federal military installation attacked by the South in April 1861 was
Fort Sumter
In Lincoln's mind, the Emancipation Proclamation
changed the war into a war of subjugation and destruction of the Old South.
Sherman's victory at Atlanta caused
McClellan to repudiate the Democrats' peace platform.
In Abraham Lincoln's view, secession was
an illegal act that constituted an insurrection against the Union.
During the war the federal government
grew in power and centralized authority
Sherman's march to the sea was intended to
devastate Georgia and destroy southern morale
The most important reason for Abraham Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation was that he
agreed with Frederick Douglass that, for both moral and military reasons, the war was a struggle to end slavery.
General George B. McClellan was relieved of his command of the Army of the Potomac by President Lincoln in 1862 because
in Lincoln's view, McClellan lacked the stomach to commit his troops to achieve a major victory.
In 1863, prior to the campaign that resulted in the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee wanted to invade the North for all of the following reasons except
his troops outnumbered disorganized Union troops in Pennsylvania.
Irish and German immigrants in New York City turned to violence over the draft because they
feared the potential presence of freed slaves
The Union movement toward emancipation was most directly precipitated by
escaped slaves seeking refuge across Union lines
Lincoln and his advisors formulated a war strategy that called for them to
launch an aggressive military campaign against the Confederacy and end the conflict with a quick victory.