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Biology Exam Connect Questions

Mitosis/Meiosis Unit- (CH9-10) Mendelian Genetics (CH 11) Molecular Biology (CH 12-14) Evolution Unit- (CH 15-18) Plant and Animal Evolution and Diversity Unit (23,28,29) Plant and Animal Physiology Unit Review (CH 32,34,35)
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species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
Order these major taxonomic categories into an increasingly inclusive hierarchy.
genus, species, class, order, family, domain, kingdom, phylum
class, order, family, genus, species, kingdom, phylum, domain
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
All of the above.
Which of the following features would be used to construct a phylogenic tree?
homologous structures
fossil record data
DNA-DNA hybridization
amino acid sequences
All of the above.
Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi
Of the five kingdoms in Whittaker's classification system, which do most biologists continue to recognize?
Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi
Monera, Plantae, and Animalia
Protista, Fungi, and Plantae
Fungi, Protista, and Animalia
Animal
Which kingdom or supergroup is characterized by organisms that are heterotrophic by ingestion?
Protists
Plant
Animal
Fungi
Based on molecular data, Monera has been divided into the two distinct domains, Archaea and Bacteria.
Whittaker's classification included Kingdom Monera, which included all prokaryotes. Why is this classification obsolete?
Based on fossil evidence, this group has been divided into three newly named kingdoms.
Based on molecular data, Monera has been divided into the two distinct domains, Archaea and Bacteria.
The prokaryotes, which were included in this kingdom, are now included in Protista.
This kingdom now includes more organisms, so the name has been changed.
All of the choices are correct.
The scientific name of the giant swallowtail is Heraclides cresphontes. Therefore,
it belongs to the genus Heraclides.
it belongs to the species cresphontes.
the specific epithet is cresphontes.
All of the choices are correct.
the copperheads are subspecies and the cottonmouth is a separate species.
The northern copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix, the southern copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen, and the cottonmouth is Agkistrodon piscivorous. Therefore,
the copperheads are subspecies and the cottonmouth is a separate species.
they are all the same species.
all are subspecies of Agkistrodon.
they are three distinct species.
All of the choices are correct.
Nonscientists often use the words ''name," ''identify," and ''classify" interchangeably. When they want to know what an organism is, they may ask "Can you name this?" or "Can you identify this?" or "Can you classify this?" Which of the following is/are correct usage(s) of the term(s)?
Only the scientist who first describes a new species actually names it.
Classifying is grouping, and to classify something requires several organisms so you can group one as closer to a second and distant from a third.
A crop scout on a farm using a key to detect pest insect species is identifying insects but not naming or necessarily classifying them.
A scientist who publishes the name and description of a new species must necessarily also know both how to identify and classify the species.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct.
If a phylogeny is based on the natural evolution of organisms, it could
explain the variations among fossils from rock strata.
explain why there are similarities and differences among modern living groups.
reflect patterns of shared and unique sections of DNA among groups of animals.
help predict where unresearched features will be in common, such as how widely a medicine will be effective among animals.
All of the choices are correct.
common ancestry
In cladistics, _______________ is(are) the primary criterion used to classify organisms.
ecological niche
common ancestry
mating behavior
observable traits
All of the above.
They may include any of these choices.
Character traits are used to distinguish one group from another and may include
comparative anatomy and development.
the fossil record.
molecular data.
They may include any of these choices.
B and D only.
cladogram
The Greek root words for "branch" and "picture" form the biological term
cladogram.
taxonomy.
systematics.
binomial nomenclature.
phenogram.
shared ancestral character
A(n) _______ is one that is present in the common ancestor and all members of a group.
clade
analogous structure
shared derived character
divergence
shared ancestral character
shared derived character (trait).
Hair is a character shared by all mammals, but not found in their ancestral lineage. Hair is therefore considered to be a(n)
clade.
shared ancestral character (trait).
shared derived character (trait).
analogous structure.
A and E only.
homology
A study of echinoderm embryos, such as sea stars, confirms a similar developmental pattern to that of vertebrates. In both, the blastopore becomes the anus. This would be considered
convergent evolution.
synapomorphy.
behavioral data.
homology.
analogy.
chickens are more closely related to ducks than they are to humans.
The amino acid sequences in cytochrome c were determined for chickens, ducks, and humans. Scientists found a difference of 3 amino acids between chickens and ducks, but between chickens and humans there were 13 differences. One may conclude that
chickens are as closely related to humans as they are to ducks.
chickens are more closely related to ducks than they are to humans.
chickens are more closely related to humans than they are to ducks.
None of the above.
All of the choices are correct.
The use of a molecular clock may be used to indicate relatedness and evolutionary time
if nucleic acid changes are neutral and not tied to adaptation.
if nucleic acid changes occur at a fairly constant rate.
but still needs to be calibrated with the fossil record.
All of the choices are correct.
Analogous structures are derived from a common ancestral structure to perform the same function.
Which of the following statements about taxonomy is NOT true?
Analogous structures are derived from a common ancestral structure to perform the same function.
Homologous structures are derived from a single structure in the ancestor, although they may be adapted to different uses in the descendent species (e.g., a dog's foreleg and a human's arm).
In cladistics, a common ancestor and all its descendents that share one or more derived traits are placed in a single clade.
Biochemical data and the fossil record can be used independently to indicate the length of time since two species diverged from a common ancestor.
five new supergroups.
Scientists are involved in a debate over changes in the classification of Kingdom Protista. These changes include doing away with the kingdom classification and placing current protists into
a new domain.
two new domains.
five new supergroups.
three different phyla.
None of the above.
the wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
Which of the following best represents analogous structures?
the arm of a human and the wing of a bat
the arm of a human and the leg of a human
the wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bee
''primitive" and ''derived," since some early forms became very complex and some evolved forms are derived from them but lost characters and are simple.
Early biologists referred to animals as ''simple" and ''advanced," but now it is more accurate to use the following terms:
''evolved" and ''un-evolved," since everything ties together with evolution.
''primitive" and ''derived," since some early forms became very complex and some evolved forms are derived from them but lost characters and are simple.
''simple" and ''complex," since anatomy terms are more exact.
"generalists" and ''specialists," since this is how biologists classify characters.
''allopatric" and ''sympatric," since the species is most important.
Prokaryotes to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals
The evolution of organisms in the three domains and four kingdoms is most accurately described by which sequence?
Prokaryotes to Protists, separately to Animals and Plants with Fungi a loss of plant photosynthesis
Prokaryotes to Protists to Plants, from Plants separately to both Animals and Fungi
Prokaryotes to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Prokaryotes to Fungi to Protists to Plants to Animals
Protists to Prokaryotes to Fungi, from Fungi separately to Plants and Animals
None of the choices are true.
When comparing archaea with bacteria
both archaea and bacteria are easily cultured and studied in the laboratory.
the chemical nature of the cell wall of archaea and bacteria is identical and shows their early relationship.
bacteria are not very diverse and are limited in distribution, while archaea are far more diverse and found everywhere.
the archaea and bacteria are cases of reduction in traits and are both derived from early eukarya.
None of the choices are true.
thermoacidophilic archaea
A recent book by a reputable biologist suggests there is a deep, hot biosphere under the Earth's crust that may have more biomass than all life at the Earth's surface. This would primarily rely on what organisms?
viruses
thermoacidophilic archaea
primitive animals
primitive heat-loving plants
fungi living on the detritus from above
All of the choices are correct.
Taxonomy
is the branch of biology dealing with the naming, identification, and classification of organisms.
uses a binomial system developed by Linnaeus.
uses reproductive isolation as the basis of definition of a species.
All of the choices are correct.
is the specific study of identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
All of the following are true regarding systematics EXCEPT that it
is the study of the diversity of organisms at all levels of organization.
is the specific study of identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
utilizes protein, DNA, and RNA comparisons to determine relatedness of individuals.
relies on data from the fossil record, homology, and molecular data.
Protista
Single celled eukaryotic cells belong to which of the following kingdoms?
Animalia
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
All of the above are true.
Phylogenetic trees with proportional branch lengths
indicate relatedness among organisms and evolutionary time.
indicate the relative number of nucleotide pair differences between groups.
are constructed by comparing DNA sequences of homologous genes and calibrating this molecular clock with the fossil record.
All of the above are true.
A and C only.
Plantae: multicellular and photoautotrophic
Which kingdom is correctly described?
Protista: unicellular and heterotrophic only
Animalia: multicellular and heterotrophic by absorption
Fungi: multicellular and heterotrophic by ingestion
Plantae: multicellular and photoautotrophic
bats
If you were using cladistics to construct a phylogenetic tree of birds, what is the best outgroup?
bats
eagles
robins
eastern bluebirds
chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell
Which of these is the best description of a virus?
a noncellular living organism
a member of the kingdom Virusae
one of the smallest bacteria known
a cell at the boundary between living and nonliving things
chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell
poison.
Pasteur chose the Latin root word for "virus" meaning
poison.
particle.
extremely small.
contagious.
non-living.
All of the choices could be used.
Which of the following could be used to grow viruses in the laboratory?
chicken eggs
cell culture
bacteria
All of the choices could be used.
1892.
Ivanowsky first recognized that something smaller than a bacterium, called a filterable virus, was able to cause disease in the year
1650.
1700.
1892.
2001.
1965.
either DNA or RNA.
The innermost portion of a virus' structure is made up of
both DNA and RNA.
either DNA or RNA.
a membranous envelope.
a protein capsid.
spikes.
when infected people develop immunity to the present virus, strains that mutate sufficiently to be outside the range of immunity are soon spread in highly populated areas.
Influenza strains that sweep around the world often carry names such as Shanghai H1N1 or Mexico City H2N2. The viruses vary in H and N surface proteins because
the viruses reproduce and attack people in cities more often.
when infected people develop immunity to the present virus, strains that mutate sufficiently to be outside the range of immunity are soon spread in highly populated areas.
this is where the antibodies of immune people began to break down and the old virus was again virulent.
these viruses emerged as stray DNA from the genomes of people in these cities.
has not entered a lytic cycle.
If a virus is latent, it
has not entered a lytic cycle.
has not entered a lysogenic cycle.
is gaining a new envelope via "budding."
is easy to develop immunity against it.
cannot be a retrovirus.
a membranous envelope
Some, but not all, virus capsids are surrounded by _________.
a protein capsid
a membranous envelope
either DNA or RNA
both DNA and RNA
a protein spore coat
have a special protein on its surface that can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell.
In order to infect a cell, a virus must
have a special protein on its surface that can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell.
actively burrow through the cell wall or cell membrane of the host cell to reach the cell's nucleus.
inject its protein into the cell while the nucleic acid remains attached to the host cell surface.
produce a special extension of its cytoplasm when it comes into contact with the appropriate host cell.
lytic
The cycle of viral infection of a bacterial cell that will cause its death most rapidly is called the _______ cycle.
lysozyme
lysosome
lysol
lytic
lysogenic
lysogenic
The cycle of viral infection in which the viral DNA is integrated into the bacterial DNA is called the _______ cycle.
lysosome
lysol
lysogenic
lysozyme
lytic
It remains in the host cell genome, but is not replicated when host DNA is replicated.
Which statement is NOT true about a retrovirus?
It may cause cancer or AIDS.
It has the capacity to integrate cDNA into the host DNA of the cell it infects.
It contains reverse transcriptase.
It remains in the host cell genome, but is not replicated when host DNA is replicated.
fusion of its envelope with the host cell's plasma envelope.
An enveloped virus enters a host cell by
injecting its DNA or RNA into the host cell.
fusion of its envelope with the host cell's plasma envelope.
endocytosis.
Any of the above choices are correct.
B and C only are correct.
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation and Release
What is the correct sequence of events in the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage infection?
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration into host cell, Integration of viral DNA into host cell DNA, Biosythesis, Maturation, Release
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation and Release
Attachment, Fusion of envelope and host cell membrane, Biosynthesis, Maturation, and Release
Endocytosis of virion, Uncoating, Maturation, and Release
tetanus
Which of the following is not a viral disease?
West Nile Encephalitis
AIDS
tetanus
Ebola Hemorrhagic fever
their method of reproduction, whether asexual or sexual.
Viruses are categorized according to all of the following EXCEPT
their type of nucleic acid.
size and shape.
the presence of absence of an envelope.
their method of reproduction, whether asexual or sexual.
viroid.
A circular piece of RNA that interrupts the normal regulatory systems in plants, thereby causing disease is a
prion.
plant virus.
viroid.
bacterium.
All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following characterize prions?
Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles.
Prions cause TSEs, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
Prions are misshapen proteins that may interact with a normal prion protein to change its shape.
All of the choices are correct.
A and B only.
crossing over.
All of the following are means of genetic recombination in prokaryotes EXCEPT
transduction.
crossing over.
conjugation.
transformation.
transformation.
Bacterial cells pick up free pieces of DNA that were secreted by live bacteria or released from dead bacteria in their environment. This process is called
replication.
transduction.
infection.
conjugation.
transformation.
transduction.
Bacteriophages carry portions of bacterial DNA from one cell to another in a process called
replication.
transformation.
infection.
conjugation.
transduction.
They do not divide by mitosis.
Which statement is true about prokaryotes?
They do not divide by mitosis.
They usually lack a cell wall.
They contain a nucleus.
They lack ribosomes.
They contain a single circular DNA molecule as the genetic material.
1-10 µm.
Prokaryotes generally range in size from
1-10 µm.
50-100nm
10-400 nm.
20-300 mm.
10-100 µm.
endospores
When conditions are unfavorable, some Gram positive bacteria form
endospores.
capsules.
pili.
galls
thylakoids.
influenza
Which of these diseases could NOT be treated with antibiotics?
chlamydia
scarlet fever
plague
influenza
All of the choices are correct similarities.
Similarities between the archaea and eukarya include
same ribosomal proteins.
similar tRNA.
similar initiation of transcription.
All of the choices are correct similarities.
A and B only.
archaea and bacteria.
Prokaryotes are now divided into the
bacteria and cyanobacteria.
autotrophs and heterotrophs.
archaea and cyanobacteria.
archaea and bacteria.
photosynthetic bacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria.
they are harmful human pathogens.
All of the following are true of methanogens EXCEPT
they produce methane from CO2 and H2.
they live in the intestinal tracts of cows, humans, and termites.
they are harmful human pathogens.
they live in swamps and marshes.
their biogas may contribute to global warming.
thermophiles - live in extremely cold temperatures.
Which of the following is a mismatch?
methanogens - prefer anaerobic environments
thermophiles - live in extremely cold temperatures.
thermoacidophiles - live in high temperatures and acidic environments
halophiles - live in high salt environments
All of the above choices are correct.
Chemoautotrophs oxidize which of the following to obtain the energy necessary to reduce carbon dioxide to an organic compound?
hydrogen gas
hydrogen sulfide
ammonia
All of the above choices are correct.
A and C only.
All of the above choices are correct.
Halophiles
require a high salt environment.
have a chloride pump that pumps chloride into the cell.
may be chemoheterotrophs or photosynthetic.
All of the above choices are correct.
A and C only are correct.
Bacillus anthracis.
This bioterrorist agent was sent through the mail and inhaled to produce illness and death in five people. It produces endospores and is called
Staphylococcus aureus.
Clostridium tetani.
Bacillus anthracis.
Vibrio cholera.
They are viruses that infect plant and fungal cells.
Which of the following characteristics about saprotrophs is NOT true?
Saprotrophs are also called decomposers.
They are viruses that infect plant and fungal cells.
They are ecologically important in recycling matter.
They are bacteria that decompose large organic molecules.
six different supergroups.
The most widely accepted formal classification of protists assigns them to
the kingdom Protista.
six different supergroups.
Domain Archaea.
A and C are correct.
All of the above apply.
Which of the characteristic(s) apply to the Supergroup Archaeplastida?
They contain plastids that originated from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.
They include multicellular and unicellular organisms.
They include land plants and the green algae, Chlorophyta.
All of the above apply.
A and B only.
malaria - an amebozoan
Which disease is mismatched with the incorrect causative agent?
fish ick - a ciliate
malaria - an amebozoan
African sleeping sickness - a trypanosome
fish kills - dinoflagellate
Euglena
_________ is a mixotrophic protozoan that is able to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic nutritional modes.
Amoeba
Euglena
Giardia
Plasmodium
cyst - a reproductive structure
Which protistan structure is not correctly matched with its function?
trichocyst - defense and capture of prey
pyrenoid - synthesis of starch
pseudopodia - movement and feeding
cyst - a reproductive structure
multicellular
Which is NOT part of the correct description of a protozoan?
eukaryotic
usually motile
heterotrophic
multicellular
lack plant structures such as true roots, stems, and leaves.
The various forms of algae are NOT considered plants because they
are not multicellular.
lack strengthened cell walls.
never have specialized tissues.
lack plant structures such as true roots, stems, and leaves.
All of the choices are differences that separate the algae from plants.
freshwater or marine organisms that are suspended on or near the surface of water.
Plankton are
multicellular, macroscopic brown algae.
parasitic protozoans that cause human disease.
freshwater or marine organisms that are suspended on or near the surface of water.
organisms that are found living on or near the ocean floor.
sporozoan—flexing the pellicle
Which protist is NOT correctly linked to the type of movement it shows?
amoeboids—pseudopodia
sporozoan—flexing the pellicle
ciliates-—cilia
zooflagellates—flagella
may be asexual or any of these sexual cycles.
Protist reproduction
is always asexual fission.
may be asexual or any of these sexual cycles.
is always sexual with the adult haploid.
is always sexual with alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
is always sexual with the adult diploid.
Volvox—filamentous
Which of the following alga is mismatched with its description?
Ulva—multicellular
Chara—multicellular
Volvox—filamentous
Chlamydomonas—unicellular
Chara
DNA sequencing suggests that among the green algae, the __________ are most closely related to land plants.
Volvox
Chara
Ulva
Chlamydomonas
Spirogyra
red algae
A certain type of this algae has cell walls impregnated with calcium carbonate and helps to build coral reefs.
multicellular green algae
brown algae
dinoflagellates
diatoms
red algae
dinoflagellates.
"Red tides" are produced by massive blooms of
multicellular green algae.
dinoflagellates.
brown algae.
red algae.
diatoms.
eliminating excess water.
The main function of the contractile vacuole is
synthesis of carbohydrate.
resistance for survival during winter and times of drought.
eliminating excess water.
to be a photoreceptor to detect light.
chlorophyll production.
foraminiferans
The deposits of chalky fossils that built the White Cliffs of Dover were formed by
foraminiferans.
ciliates.
diatoms (as diatomaceous earth).
radiolaria.
dinoflagellates.
plants
Supergroup Opisthokinta includes all of the following organisms EXCEPT
plants.
choanoflagellates.
fungi.
animals.
A and C only.
Economically important products of the Rhodophyta include
agar used to make capsules for drugs and vitamins as well as a solidifying agent for bacterial media.
a gentle polishing abrasive included in some toothpaste or silver polish.
wrappings around sushi rolls.
All of the choices.
A and C only.
The micronucleus is exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is for general cell housekeeping.
Paramecia contain both a macronucleus and one or more small micronuclei. What are the functions of these bodies?
The macronucleus undergoes meiosis to produce haploid micronuclei that are exchanged in conjugation; this then produces a micronucleus for general cell housekeeping.
The micronucleus is exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is for general cell housekeeping.
The micronucleus is always for conjugative reproduction, while the micronucleus functions for general cell coding.
The micronuclei control the cell and the macronuclei are exchanged in conjugation for reproduction.
Trichomonas
A flagellated protist that is sexually transmitted is
Paramecium.
Entamoeba.
Plasmodium.
Trichomonas.
Giardia.
slime molds
Which can have a cellular form as well as an acellular (plasmodial) form with multiple nuclei?
diatoms
zooflagellates
ciliates
slime molds
sporozoa
All of these characteristics distinguish slime molds from fungi.
Slime molds, found in the Supergroup Amoebozoa, were once classified as fungi. What characteristics of the slime molds distinguish them from fungi?
The vegetative state of the slime mold is mobile and amoeboid.
They are flagellated cells at certain stages of the life cycle.
All of these characteristics distinguish slime molds from fungi.
Slime molds lack cell walls.
prokaryotes evolved when an aerobic bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium.
The endosymbiont hypothesis proposes all of the following EXCEPT
chloroplasts originated when a nucleated cell engulfed a cyanobacterium.
prokaryotes evolved when an aerobic bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium.
mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria.
a nucleated cell engulfed an aerobic bacterium which evolved into mitochondria.
mosquitoes and humans.
Plasmodium has two hosts in its life cycle. They are
deer ticks and deer.
tsetse flies and humans.
nutria and birds.
mosquitoes and humans.
All of the choices are correct.
A cyst
is a dormant cell with a resistant outer covering.
helps protists over winter.
aids a parasite in the survival of the host's digestive tract.
All of the choices are correct.
Giardia lamblia—malaria
Which of the following protozoans is mismatched with the disease that it causes?
Trypanosoma brucei—sleeping sickness
Giardia lamblia—malaria
Trichomonas vaginalis—vaginitis and urethritis
Entamoeba histolytica—amoebic dysentery
a pigmented organelle that shields light.
An eyespot is
a pigmented organelle that shields light.
a protein band beneath the plasma membrane.
a swelling near the base of a long flagellum that detects light.
All of the choices are true.
Entamoeba histolytica.
A common cause of amoebic dysentery is
Trichomonas vaginalis.
Entamoeba histolytica.
Giardia intestinalis.
Plasmodium falciparum
ingesting contaminated water or food.
Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by (through)
having sex with an infected partner.
the bite of a mosquito.
the bite of a tsetse fly.
ingesting contaminated water or food.
mosquito; humans
In Plasmodium, sexual reproduction occurs in the _________, while asexual reproduction occurs in ________.
humans; mosquitoes
deer tick; deer
mosquito; humans
tsetse fly; humans
sporangiospores
Which of the following spores is the result of asexual reproduction?
basidiospores
zygospores
ascospores
sporangiospores
conidia
Which of the following structures are NOT involved in sexual reproduction?
mushrooms
conidia
gametangia
ascocarps
Strep throat (pharyngitis).
Fungal diseases include all of the following EXCEPT
athlete's foot.
Strep throat (pharyngitis).
histoplasmosis.
thrush.
The energy reserve of fungi is starch while the energy reserve of animals is glycogen.
In differentiating fungi from plants and animals, which of the following statements is NOT true?
Plants have cell walls of cellulose; fungi have cell walls of chitin.
The energy reserve of fungi is starch while the energy reserve of animals is glycogen.
Fungal spores develop into haploid hyphae without embryo development; plants have embryo development.
Animals are heterotrophic by ingestion while fungi are heterotrophic by absorption.
determined by whether the hyphae have cross walls or lack cross walls.
The difference between septate hyphae and nonseptate hyphae is
a distinction between saprotrophic fungi and parasitic or disease-causing fungi.
a classification trait that separates basidiomycotes from ascomycotes.
determined by whether the hyphae have cross walls or lack cross walls.
a difference in haploid and diploid cells.
a distinction between plasmodial masses with many nuclei and nonliving zygospores.
contain paired haploid nuclei that fail to fuse for an extended period of time.
Dikaryotic cells of fungi
are just another form of haploid cells.
are nonseptate plasmodial masses with many nuclei and no cell partitioning.
are potential symbionts that can join with algae to form lichens.
contain paired haploid nuclei that fail to fuse for an extended period of time.
is just another name for diploid cells.
two nuclei.
The term "dikaryotic" is based on the Greek root words meaning
two-walled.
begin to germinate.
anti-bacterial.
two nuclei.
half nuclei or haploid.
hypha
One of the long, branching filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus is called a(n)
ascospore.
hypha.
basidiospore.
mycelium.
conidium.
basidiospore
A mushroom would produce a sexual spore known as a(n)
hypha.
conidium.
basidiospore.
ascospore.
mycelium.
All of these are differences between fungi and plants.
At one time, biologists thought that fungi were merely forms of plants that had lost their chlorophyll and had returned to saprotrophy. Why is this no longer considered a solid theory?
Fungal cell walls contain chitin rather than cellulose.
Fungi attack and engulf food for internal digestion.
Fungi have flagella at some stage, providing mobility that plants never have.
Plants are multicellular and fungi are unicellular or multinucleated noncellular plasmodia.
All of these are differences between fungi and plants.
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the fungi withdraw food from the algae and the algae do not benefit from the association.
The relationship between the fungi and algae in lichens is best described as
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the fungi withdraw food from the algae and the algae do not benefit from the association.
a simple cooperative mutualism between normally free-living strains.
a complete mixing of the genomes of the two groups at the cellular level.
an endosymbiotic transfer of the chloroplasts of algae to the hyphae cells.
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the algae are moistened and protected by the fungi, but the fungi do not benefit from the association.
The bread was sterilized when it was baked and thereafter mold spores from the air settle only on the outside of the cooled bread.
In time, bread becomes stale and grows mold on the exposed surfaces. Why does mold not begin growing inside the bread loaf?
Only molds at the surface of the bread can get oxygen to respire.
Mold actually begins from anywhere inside but produces colored spores only at the surface.
The bread was sterilized when it was baked and thereafter mold spores from the air settle only on the outside of the cooled bread.
Mold can grow only on dry surfaces.
There is an antibiotic antagonism between the bread mold and the internal yeasts that made the bread rise.
ergot
The parasitic sac fungus that grows on rye and other grains and contains the hallucinogenic chemical lysergic acid is
Saccharomyces.
ergot.
Rhizopus.
Penicillin.
Aspergillus.
ascospore
A sexual spore produced by a sac fungus is called a(n)
hypha.
ascospore.
mycelium.
conidiospore.
basidiospore.
conidiospore
An asexual spore produced by a sac fungus or club fungus is called a(n)
conidiospore.
mycelium.
basidiospore.
hypha.
ascospore.
lichens
The presence of ____________ indicates that the air is healthy for humans to breathe.
yeast
ergot
lichens
smuts
mycorrhizae
basidiospores
When the cap of an average gilled mushroom is cut off and placed on paper, a spoke-like print eventually appears on the paper under the cap. This powdery material would be
conidiospores.
sporangia.
basidiospores.
mycelia.
hyphae.
rusts and smuts
The fungi that parasitize cereal crops such as corn, wheat, oats, and rye are the
stinkhorns.
lichens.
truffles.
rusts and smuts.
yeasts.
Rusts and smuts—truffles
Which is NOT a correct association of a fungus and product?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae—beer and wine
Penicillium—antibiotics
Aspergillus—citric and gallic acid
Rusts and smuts—truffles
Aspergillus—soy sauce
lichens
Crustose, fruticose, and foliose are varieties of
lichens.
mycorrhizae.
rusts and smuts.
mushrooms.
yeasts.
None are mismatched. They are all correctly matched.
Which of the fungal groups is mismatched with the asexual spore produced?
Ascomycota—conidiospores
Basidiomycota—conidiospores
Zygomycophyta—sporangiospores
Chytrids—zoospores
None are mismatched. They are all correctly matched.
sac fungi
Species of ________ are known to consume jet fuel and wall paint.
sac fungi
Chytrids
AM fungi
club fungi
All of the choices are correct.
Yeasts
are members of the ascomycota.
reproduce asexually by budding.
are responsible for beer, wine, and bread production.
All of the choices are correct.
A and C only are correct.
A and C are true.
Which of the following statements about mycorrhizae is/are true?
Fungi may enter the cortex of plant roots but do not enter the cytoplasm of plant cells.
Plants are harmed, while fungi benefit.
The presence of the fungi give plants a greater absorptive surface for the intake of minerals.
All of the above are true.
A and C are true.
truffles.
Mycorrhizal sac fungi that live in association with oak and beech tree roots are
truffles.
yeast.
chytrids.
ergot.
Chytridiomycota
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which reproduces asexually through the production of zoospores, recently destroyed populations of harlequin frogs in Central and South America. It is a member of which phylum of fungi?
Basidiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Zygomycota
fungal and human cells are so similar that it is difficult to make fungal medications that do not harm human cells.
Fungal infections are difficult to treat because
fungal and human cells are so similar that it is difficult to make fungal medications that do not harm human cells.
they "hide out" inside of cells, and have long latent periods where medications can not get to the organism.
they mutate very rapidly and therefore become resistant to most medications.
All of the above.
Stachybotrys
__________, a black mold that grows well on building materials, causes "sick building syndrome" in those who have been chronically exposed to its toxins.
Candida
Histoplasma
Stachybotrys
Aspergillus
digitoxin
Poisonous or physiologically active chemicals include all of the following EXCEPT
psilocybin, a structural analog of LSD and mescaline.
muscarine and muscaridine.
digitoxin.
ergot alkaloids.
Histoplasma
The dimorphic fungus, _________, grows in mold form at 25° and in yeast form at 37°. It is associated with bird droppings and in most cases leads to a mild fungal flu.
Aspergillus
Candida
Histoplasma
Trichophyton
habitat
The particular place where an organism lives is its
community.
ecosystem.
niche.
habitat.
life zone.
density-dependent environmental resistance increases.
As the carrying capacity of an environment is approached by a population,
deaths begin to exceed births.
the rate of reproduction increases.
density-dependent environmental resistance increases.
population growth begins to be exponential.
births begin to exceed deaths.
Denitrification removes nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to a form that plants can use.
Which of the following statements about the nitrogen cycle is NOT true?
Both ammonium and nitrate ions are highly water-soluble
Nitrogen fixation can occur in aquatic systems or in soil bacteria.
Denitrification removes nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to a form that plants can use.
Nitrification occurs as ammonium is converted to nitrate.
Nitrification occurs as nitrogen gas is converted to nitrate.
All of the choices are correct.
Density-independent factors which play a role in regulating population size in nature include
weather.
natural disasters.
geographical barriers.
All of the choices are correct.
A and B only are correct.
Some water evaporates from land and from plants.
Which of the following statement(s) about the hydrologic cycle is (are) true?
Because this is a true cycle, it is impossible to run out of fresh water for human use.
All water molecules that evaporate from the ocean precipitate on land and move by gravity through groundwater to the ocean again.
Some water evaporates from land and from plants.
Once water sinks into the ground, it is safe from human exploitation or pollution until it has rejoined the ocean.
All of the choices are true.
r-strategists
If the members of a population are small in size, mature early, and have high parity and fecundity, they are ______.
r-strategists
K-strategists
neither K-strategists nor r-strategists, but have characteristics of both.
possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.
Is it possible that the carbon atoms in your body may have once made up the living tissues of another person or animal in earlier times? This is
possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.
possible only if you are a cannibal.
highly unlikely since carbon is always tied up in molecules in organisms or minerals.
impossible since carbon can't enter a living system more than once.
mates
Which of the following resources is NOT subject to interspecific competition?
space
food
mates
water
sunlight
have only a single reproductive event in their lifetime.
Semelparity is a pattern of reproduction in which the members of a population
have only a single reproductive event in their lifetime.
have many reproductive events in their lifetime.
have no reproductive events in their lifetime.
None of the choices are correct.
actions of an animal that immediately benefit others rather than itself.
Altruism is
displaced aggressive behavior.
a means of ranking animals in a dominance hierarchy.
actions of an animal that immediately benefit others rather than itself.
belligerent behavior that helps an animal compete in its society.
demographic transition.
The sequence of decreased death rate followed by a decrease in birthrate is called
environmental resistance.
a limiting factor.
replacement reproduction.
demographic transition.
doubling time coefficient.
are good dispersers and colonizers of new habitats.
Opportunistic species
are slow to mature.
are adapted to stable environments.
have long life spans.
are good dispersers and colonizers of new habitats.
are composed of large individual organisms.
a pheromone pathway laid down by previous ants.
Ants following a trail to the sugar bowl in your kitchen are doing so because of
a pheromone pathway laid down by previous ants.
operant conditioning.
chance alone.
an innate knowledge of where the sugar can be found.
a dance done by an ant in the anthill.
coevolution
The frequent change in HIV surface proteins is a type of
parasitism.
commensalisms.
coevolution.
mutualism.
primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
In a grazing food chain,
primary consumers eat detritus.
primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
secondary consumers eat detritus.
secondary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
all the consumers are primary consumers.
All behaviors can be explained as fixed action patterns.
Which of the following statements about behavior is NOT true?
Innate behavior is usually inherited.
Innate behavior is triggered by a stimulus.
Fixed action patterns are sometimes subject to modification by learning.
Animals with simple nervous systems tend to respond to a stimulus with an innate behavior.
All behaviors can be explained as fixed action patterns.
tactile communication
Primate grooming and honeybee waggle-dancing share which of these forms of communication?
tactile communication
chemical communication
visual communication
auditory communication
spread of illness and parasites.
Advantages to living in a social group for an animal includes all of the following EXCEPT
group food gathering.
spread of illness and parasites.
help in predator avoidance.
help raising young.
type III
Consider the life of the praying mantis. The large predatory female lays several hundred eggs in a foam mass in the fall. The young are most vulnerable when they emerge in the spring, but the few that survive spread out over the countryside and, if they find a mate, lay eggs the following fall. Which type of survivorship curve does this represent?
type III
type II
maximal exponential growth and minimal use of carrying capacity
type I
exponential growth followed by a decline from resource depletion
hunger
The stimulus for foraging is
the defense of a home range.
sexual desires.
hunger.
protecting young offspring from predators.
autotrophs
Energy flow in an ecosystem begins with
herbivores.
detritivores.
carnivores.
omnivores.
autotrophs.
realized niche.
The actual conditions under which an organism exists in nature constitute its
fundamental niche.
realized niche.
habitat.
resource partition.
population densities
Bangladesh has 2596 persons per square mile, while the United States has 780 persons per square mile and Canada has 9 persons per square mile. These statistics compare the _____ of these countries.
carrying capacities
limiting factors
population distributions
rate of natural increase
population densities
the biological clock in insects and mammals.
The "period" gene controls
maternal behavior in mice.
the biological clock in insects and mammals.
the egg-laying process in marine snails.
the ability to navigate in migrating birds.
Semelparity evolves in a stable environment.
Which of the following statements about semelparity is NOT correct?
Semelparity evolves in a stable environment.
Semelparous organisms invest most of their energy into reproduction.
Semelparous organisms produce a resting stage, such as eggs or seeds, that can survive unfavorable conditions.
Semelparous organisms have a single reproductive event in their lifetime.
Ozone destruction is catalyzed by chlorofluorocarbons like Freon.
Which of the following statements about ozone is true?
The ozone shield is breaking down because we are not producing enough ozone at the ground level.
Ozone destruction is catalyzed by chlorofluorocarbons like Freon.
The protective effect of ozone can be replaced by increasing the other greenhouse gases.
Ozone is the same as molecular oxygen, O2.
Ozone increases photosynthesis in plants.
All of the choices are advantages to the female.
In African tribes polygamy is practiced. The advantage to the female is
more surviving children.
good food source.
help in child rearing.
All of the choices are advantages to the female.
Competition
____ is the interaction between two species as both attempt to use the same environmental resources.
Competition.
An ecosystem.
A community.
Predation.
Symbiosis.
inherited systems that are evolutionarily adaptive.
The "hardwired" or inherited set response patterns that are described for a male cheetah spraying a pheromone to mark its territory, a bee performing a waggle-dance, or a cricket singing to sort out mates, are
inherited systems that are evolutionarily adaptive.
languages similar to human languages in variability and learning requirements.
the sociobiological roots of our language system.
altruistic adaptations to improve the general environment.
symbol systems.
insight learning.
The type of learning that is associated with an organism solving a problem without any prior experiences with the situation is
insight learning.
imprinting.
operant conditioning.
associative learning.
Monogamy
_______ occurs when males have limited mating opportunities.
Monogamy
Polyanthrus
Homosexuality
Polygamy
both the number of species and the evenness or relative abundance of individuals of the different species
Two communities may have exactly the same number of species, yet one might be measured as having a greater species diversity. Why?
both the number of species and the evenness or relative abundance of individuals of the different species
a community and all of the abiotic factors associated with it
the native species plus the introduced species
composition or a listing of the various species in a community
the potential number of species that should exist in a community minus the species that have gone locally extinct
herbivore - eats producers and performs photosynthesis
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
detritivore - feeds on decomposing organic matter
carnivore - feeds on other consumers
herbivore - eats producers and performs photosynthesis
autotroph - performs photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
omnivore - eats both producers and consumers
equilibrium is reached when the rate of immigrations matches the rate of species extinction.
Island biogeography and/or the spatial heterogeneity model predicts that
space is unlimited and community richness can increase indefinitely.
stratification decreases the number of species that can occupy an area.
equilibrium is reached when the rate of immigrations matches the rate of species extinction.
uniform environments are richer than patchy environments.
the equilibrium point is highest for a small island most distant from the mainland.
the population growth slowing to zero.
In the logistic growth curve formula, when N is very large, (K-N)/N is almost equal to 0, which results in
the population growing as fast as it can, or r(N).
the population growth slowing to zero.
You can't tell without knowing the value of r (rate of reproduction).
the population going extinct.
the population exceeding carrying capacity; more are dying due to starvation than are born.
All of the choices are correct.
An ecologist may study
the human impact on the Earth's environment.
the different types of organisms living near a hydrothermal vent and how they interact.
the affect of a particular pesticide on a food chain.
how populations are restricted by environmental resistance.
All of the choices are correct.
time for development of the soil.
Primary succession takes much longer than secondary succession because it involves
colonization by organisms that are farther away.
more time for development of a seed bank.
colonization by more K-selected species.
time for development of the soil.
redevelopment of the atmospheric gases.
sexual selection.
An increase in fitness due to competition among males and mate choice by females is a result of
sexual dimorphism.
sociobiology.
social interaction.
courtship.
sexual selection.
individuals dying at a constant rate throughout time.
A type II survivorship curve, drawn by plotting the number of individuals in a given population alive at the beginning of each age interval, is characterized by
individuals dying at a constant rate throughout time.
most individuals dying of old age.
most individuals dying during their reproductive years.
many individuals dying early in life.
All of the choices are correct.
________ communication occurs within an animal societal unit.
Chemical
Auditory
Visual
Tactile
All of the choices are correct.
a red-winged blackbird singing to ward off other males and attract a female to the nest in his fencerow.
An example of territoriality is
barnacles attached to a boat bottom.
a cloud of moths attracted to a light.
a swarm of mosquitoes hovering around a sweaty person.
a red-winged blackbird singing to ward off other males and attract a female to the nest in his fencerow.
All of the choices are correct.
a community.
All the populations of all the different species interacting with one another in the same environment is called
predation.
symbiosis.
diversity.
a community.
an ecosystem.
a proximate cause.
Migratory behavior has a proximate cause and an ultimate cause. A shortening of daylight hours or a drop in temperature would be considered
an ultimate cause.
a proximate cause.
Neither choice is correct.
death rate is greater than birth rate.
The population growth rate is negative when
a country becomes poorer, because it is related to economic growth.
better health care reduces the death rate and increases survivorship of newborns.
all couples are married but average fewer than two children apiece.
death rate is greater than birth rate.
birthrate is greater than death rate.
both the biotic and the abiotic components of the local environment.
An ecosystem contains
only the energy flow components of an local environment.
only the food relationships found in the local environment.
both the biotic and the abiotic components of the local environment.
only the biotic components of the local environment.
only the abiotic components of the local environment.
imprinting
The "sensitive period" is associated with
operant conditioning.
extinction.
imprinting.
insight learning.
motivation.
the limited availability of renewable resources in the environment and the environmental resistance to the biotic potential of the organism.
The carrying capacity of the environment for a species is determined by
the age distribution of that species.
the state and national wildlife laws pertaining to that species.
the reproductive rate of the organism.
the limited availability of renewable resources in the environment and the environmental resistance to the biotic potential of the organism.
the number of organisms of that species.
water
The greenhouse gases include all of the following EXCEPT
carbon dioxide.
water.
methane.
nitrous oxide.
10%
Approximately what percentage of the energy in one trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level?
10%
100%
60%
30%
1%
a Batesian mimic
A harmless fly resembling a stinging wasp is
a Mullerian mimic.
a Batesian mimic.
commensalism.
a case of mutual camouflage.
the same habitat but different niches.
In an Asian rice paddy, carp eat decaying material from around the base of rice plants while a snail scrapes algae from the leaves, stems, and roots of the same plant. They can survive at the same time in the same rice paddy because they occupy
the same habitat and the same niche.
the same habitat but different niches.
different habitats and different niches.
the same niche but different habitats.
urn
A population in which death rates are higher than birth rates, and the prereproductive group is smaller than the reproductive group, is best represented by an age structure diagram with a(n) ______ -shape.
S
urn
J
pyramid
bell
Predation
_____ occurs when one living organism feeds on another.
Competition
Commensalism
Predation
Mimicry
Symbiosis
All of the choices are correct
Clements proposed the climax-pattern model of succession. Governing factors for this model include
climate.
soil conditions.
each successive community preparing the way for the next.
All of the choices are correct.
A and C only are correct.
tactile
A male leopard nuzzles the female's neck to calm her and to stimulate her willingness to mate. This is an example of _____ communication.
tactile
auditory
chemical
visual
competitive exclusion
What occurs when two species with very similar niches live in an overlapping range?
competitive exclusion
total extinction of one species
speciation
hypervolume
a switch in habitat for one of the organisms
imprinting
Learned behavior that causes a family of baby ducks to follow their mother is called
imprinting.
extinction.
operant conditioning.
insight learning.
motivation.
allows the animal to produce the largest number of viable offspring.
Adaptive behavior has probably been selected by evolutionary processes because it
makes the animal the smartest.
allows the animal to live the longest.
allows the animal to live in the widest variety of environments.
allows the animal to produce the largest number of viable offspring.
All of the choices are correct.
a geological component, in which chemicals move through the soil or the air
Chemical cycling may involve which of the following?
a reservoir unavailable to producers
an exchange pool as a source from which organisms can acquire chemicals
a biotic community in which chemicals move through food chains
a geological component, in which chemicals move through the soil or the air
All of the choices are correct.
operant conditioning.
The Jones family has a plan to encourage good behavior in their children. When a child completes daily chores, that child receives a gold star. The earning of fourteen gold stars allows the child to choose between a visit to the movie theatre or the park. This is an example of
insight learning.
polyanthrus.
imprinting.
operant conditioning.
classical conditioning.
zero, because there is exact replacement of the previous generation
Consider that a species of salmon lays 20,000 eggs per pair when it spawns and dies. At the end of five years, an average of one pair of mature salmon from this group of hatched eggs returns again to spawn in the parent stream (19,998 have not survived). What is the rate of natural increase?
zero, because there is exact replacement of the previous generation
10,000, because there were that many eggs produced per parent fish (r)
19,998, because there was this much total loss
2,000, because there was this much average die-off per year
2,000, because this must be divided by five years
the body language of various species.
Supportive information for the presence of emotions in animals other than humans includes
the body language of various species.
the observations that animals differ in degree rather than kind of feelings.
neurobiological data.
presence of limbic systems.
All of the choices are correct.
An efficient parasite usually kills its host.
Which of the following statements about parasitism is NOT true?
Some organisms and all viruses are obligate parasites and must live inside a host.
The host is generally larger than the parasite.
Ectoparasites are attached to the outside of the host's body by specialized organs.
Smaller parasites often live as endoparasites within the body of the host.
An efficient parasite usually kills its host.
food chains are only 10 to 20% efficient at each step, and top carnivores are therefore limited by the availability of food in their range.
Compared with the numbers of grasshoppers or deer, there are not a lot of mountain lions. The reason that large and fierce top-level carnivores are rare in an ecosystem is that
through natural selection, most fierce animals have been killed off by others.
only a few such animals are permitted by succession in a biome, and there are only a few biomes.
such animals do not tolerate other members like them.
food chains are only 10 to 20% efficient at each step, and top carnivores are therefore limited by the availability of food in their range.
ecosystem; population
A pond represents a(n) _______ while the minnows represent a(n) ______.
ecosystem; population
ecosystem; community
community; population
population; community
population; ecosystem
The increase number of Batesian mimics dilutes or weakens the protection afforded by the warning color pattern, but the addition of more Mullerian mimics only strengthens the protective mimicry complex.
Consider the consequences of a harmless prey that evolves toward mimicry of a model that has an antipredator defense (Batesian mimicry). What happens to the effectiveness of this defense as more and more prey in the population are harmless mimics? Then consider what happens when a species with bad taste evolves to resemble a model that stings (Mullerian mimicry).
The number of both Batesian and Mullerian mimics is limited because both dilute the protection afforded by the warning color pattern.
The number of both Batesian and Mullerian mimics is unlimited because they both reinforce the protection afforded by the warning color pattern.
The increase number of Batesian mimics dilutes or weakens the protection afforded by the warning color pattern, but the addition of more Mullerian mimics only strengthens the protective mimicry complex.
The number of Mullerian mimics is limited because they dilute the protection afforded by the warning color pattern, but the addition of more Batesian mimics only strengthens the protective mimicry complex.
only one species per jar.
There are several species of grain beetles that live on dry meal and do considerable damage to stored grain. In an experiment, a dozen jars of dry meal are set up and fifty individuals of each species, both males and females, are added to each jar. The food supply is not quite sufficient to last for six months and the size of the jar is adequate so that wastes do not become toxic. Most likely, examination of the jars in six months will find
the same ratio of beetles as when you started(about half from each species).
a totally random variation in numbers of both beetles.
only one species per jar.
only dead beetles in all jars due to intense competition for the niche.
These worker bees are more related to hive offspring than they would be if they were fertile and produced offspring.
Many worker bees give their lives to save a bee hive from an attack by bears or other animals. In such cases, we now know that
each female worker is waiting to get her chance to reproduce.
this is a case of sexual selection.
this is a case of bees consciously understanding the need to preserve the nest for their individual benefit—they might survive if all work together.
These worker bees are more related to hive offspring than they would be if they were fertile and produced offspring.
omnivore
Which of the following may be a secondary or tertiary consumer?
omnivore
autotroph
detritovore
herbivore
endocrine and nervous
Scientific discoveries have provided evidence that the ______ systems are involved in behavior.
respiratory and digestive
excretory and circulatory
digestive and reproductive
endocrine and nervous
a chemical released by males that reduces premenstrual tension in women.
An example of a pheromone in humans is
a chemical released by males that reduces premenstrual tension in women.
saliva exchanged during kissing (as a sexual stimulant).
the mother's milk that transfers immunity to the infant.
testosterone.
humans - carnivores
Which of the following associations between organism and nutrient source is incorrect?
earthworms - detritivores
cows - herbivores
bacteria - decomposers
humans - carnivores
raccoons - omnivores
All of these choices limit exponential growth.
Which of the following factor(s) limit(s) exponential growth of a population?
limited resource availability
increases in predator populations
competition between members
competition with other species
All of these choices limit exponential growth.
carrying capacity
Population size levels off at the _______ of an environment.
environmental resistance
carrying capacity
biotic potential
population growth
A couple adopt a child that is not related to them.
Which of the following instances does NOT agree with the expected outcome of sociobiological theory?
A person saves a family member or cousin who falls overboard from drowning.
In the hill country of India, brothers share the same wife. In hostile environments it takes two men to provide the necessities for one family.
In an African tribe, one man has several wives. A woman having fewer children can provide a better diet and a healthier child.
A couple adopt a child that is not related to them.
visual
Hippopotamuses perform territorial displays that include mouth opening. This is _____ communication.
chemical
auditory
visual
tactile
fundamental niche.
All of the conditions under which an organism could conceivably survive and reproduce constitute its
resource partition.
habitat.
realized niche.
fundamental niche.
biotic potential.
The maximum rate of natural increase of a population that occurs under ideal conditions is the
biotic potential.
environmental resistance.
carrying capacity.
density-independent population.
population growth.
the greenhouse effect, which is a proven and measurable phenomenon.
Sunlight that passes through the atmosphere is absorbed and is reradiated back as longer wavelength infrared waves that are trapped by gases in the atmosphere. This is referred to as
the carbon cycle.
the greenhouse effect, which is a proven and measurable phenomenon.
the theory of the greenhouse effect, although it is just a hypothesis.
global warming.
the main input of energy that drives all life energy chains.
kin selection.
An organism does not necessarily have to ensure that its own genes are passed to the next generation. The adaptation to the environment due to the reproductive success of an organism's relatives is
direct selection.
natural selection.
kin selection.
altruism.
Pyramids built upon the biomass of organisms at each level eliminate size as a factor.
Which of the following statements about ecological pyramids is true?
Pyramids built upon the biomass of organisms at each level eliminate size as a factor.
Energy gains between trophic levels occur based upon biomass conversion.
The limited number of trophic levels in an ecological pyramid is due to increasing complexity and size of organisms at each greater trophic level.
A pyramid of organism numbers will always have a large base and a small top.
None of the choices are true.
classical conditioning.
Pavlov's well known experiment of a dog salivating at the sound of a bell ring is an example of
classical conditioning.
imprinting.
operant conditioning.
insight learning.
bottlenose dolphins
Besides humans, _____ have one of the most complex languages in the animal kingdom.
bottlenose dolphins
crickets
chimpanzees
kilpspringers
auditory communication.
very rapid kind of communication that works at a distance and in the dark is
visual communication.
tactile communication.
auditory communication.
chemical communication.
foraged in different places of the tree canopy.
Ecologist Robert MacArthur observed that five species of similar warblers coexisted on spruce trees because they
ate different kinds of insects.
foraged in different places of the tree canopy.
cooperated in their foraging habits.
were actually subspecies of the same species.
were kept below the carrying capacity by predators.
a population's distribution is calculated as the number of individuals per unit area.
All of the following statements about population distribution are true EXCEPT
behavioral traits, such as territorality, can affect the distribution pattern of a population.
population distribution is the pattern of dispersal of individuals across an area of interest.
a population's distribution is calculated as the number of individuals per unit area.
environmental conditions, such as climate and altitude, are often limiting factors of distribution.
B. F. Skinner.
To train an animal, you try to reward each instance of desired behavior. In this way, you can eventually get pigeons to play ping-pong. This system of reward was developed by
Jacque Loeb.
Konrad Lorenz.
Peter Marlar.
B. F. Skinner.
Ivan Pavlov.
increase the inclusive fitness of the altruist.
Altruistic behaviors between closely related animals
increase the life-time reproductive success of the altruist.
increase the inclusive fitness of the altruist.
force individuals to cooperate with one another and thereby increase mating and population growth.
reduce fighting between species.
many reproductive events occur throughout an organism's lifetime.
In the iteroparitous pattern of population growth
many reproductive events occur throughout an organism's lifetime.
the mature adults cease to grow, put energy into reproduction, and then die.
there is often an unstable environment, where offspring do not have a good chance of survival.
All of the choices are true.
exponential growth of a population, followed by a population crash.
Irruptive, or Malthusian, growth is characterized by
a slow increase, followed by a rapid decrease in population.
a steady increase in the population, followed by a steady decline.
exponential growth of a population, followed by a population crash.
exponential growth of a population, followed by a leveling off and stability.
None of the choices are correct.
3%
The freshwater available for use by the human population makes up about ____ of the world's supply of water.
50%
25%
10%
3%
the scale insect was r-selected and the high number of young included a resistant strain; the predator was K-selected and will take longer to produce a resistant variety.
Farmers sprayed leechi trees to suppress populations of scale insects. This also killed the populations of a predatory lacewing that controlled the numbers of scales. Soon the spraying did no good, and the damage to the leechi from the scales was greater than before spraying had occurred. Few predatory lacewings exist in the trees now because
the scale insect was K-selected and the high number of young included a resistant strain, while the predator was r-selected and will take longer to produce a resistant variety.
they, too, are insects so they are r-selected.
the predator was r-selected and was therefore more susceptible to the spray.
the scale insect was r-selected and the high number of young included a resistant strain; the predator was K-selected and will take longer to produce a resistant variety.
All of the choices apply.
female chooses a mate by
courtship display rituals.
selecting the more aggressive and vigorous males.
selecting traits that improve the chances of offspring survival.
All of the choices apply.
All of the choices are true.
Which of the following about the semelparous pattern of population growth is NOT true?
Parents invest resources into the survival of their offspring.
The mature adults cease to grow, put energy into reproduction, and then die.
Organisms reproduce once in a lifetime.
Organisms are generally not involved with extensive parental care of the offspring.
All of the choices are true.
converted to heat, which is no longer useful.
Energy flow in an ecosystem is not cyclic because energy is
converted to heat, which is no longer useful.
increased as you go up the energy pyramid.
evenly spread out over many organisms.
converted to many kinds of useful energy.
destroyed as it is used.
community
A(n) _______ consists of all the populations of multiple species interacting in a designated region.
ecosystem
community
biosphere
None of the choices are correct.
territoriality
Dogs scent-mark by defecating and urinating in an area, while cats scent-mark by rubbing against objects. These are examples of
foraging.
sexual selection.
territoriality.
altruism.
successful reproduction of its members.
All of the following factors will keep a population from growing at its biotic potential EXCEPT
lack of availability of space.
abundance of predators.
successful reproduction of its members.
prevalence of disease or parasites.
limited supply of food and water.
genes can control endocrine gland secretions that control behavior.
Scientists have discovered gene products, including the hormone ELH, that control all components of egg-laying behavior in Aplysia slugs. This discovery confirms that
genes only influence physiology and structure but not behavior.
the egg-laying behavior is innate or hardwired into the slug's brain.
the egg-laying behavior has absolutely no nervous system involvement.
this slug could avoid being eaten by garter snakes.
genes can control endocrine gland secretions that control behavior.
decomposers
The only heterotrophs required in an ecosystem are
herbivores.
decomposers.
omnivores.
autotrophs.
carnivores.
All of the choices are correct.
What factors help migrating birds to find their destination?
the sun during the day
the stars at night
a biological clock
the Earth's magnetic field
All of the choices are correct.
commensalism
A small marine amphipod has recently been discovered that carries a bad-tasting organism on its back, which is contrary to its normal behavior. If a fish ingests the pair, it immediately spits them back out. If the amphipod is alone, however, it is readily eaten. There is no apparent benefit or harm in this relationship for the "backpack" organism. This is probably a case of
parasitism.
commensalism.
competitive exclusion.
mutualism.
reciprocal altruism.
The making of a short-term reproductive sacrifice in order to maximize future reproductive potential is
kin selection.
territoriality.
reciprocal altruism.
inclusive fitness.
all the individuals in a population born at the same time.
A cohort is
all the individuals in a population born at the same time.
all individuals living in the same habitat.
all the different species in a community.
all the organisms interacting in the ecosystem.
All of the choices are correct.
A decline in the numbers of prey causes a decline in the number of predators.
Which of the following is (are) correct in a predator-prey cycle?
A decline in the numbers of predators causes a decline in the number of prey.
A decline in the numbers of prey causes a decline in the number of predators.
An increase in the number of predators triggers an increase in the numbers of prey.
All of these are correct, causing an up-and-down cycle for each animal.
an example of resource partitioning.
MacArthur discovered that five species of warblers coexisted on spruce trees by foraging on the same caterpillar, but in different places of the tree canopy. This is
confirmation that all warblers were actually variations of the same species because different species couldn't coexist.
an exception based on birds taking longer to eventually compete and eliminate competitors.
an exception to the competitive exclusion principle.
an example of resource partitioning.
the other.
Altrusim is derived from the Latin root word meaning
selfish.
the other.
sympathetic.
genetic.
a decrease in growth in most, but not all, more-developed countries and continued growth in most less-developed countries.
In the near future, the world population is predicted to involve
a worldwide decrease in population growth due to limited resources.
a continuation of human population growth at the same pace as in the previous century.
an increase in population growth in all countries in the world.
a decrease in growth in most, but not all, more-developed countries and continued growth in most less-developed countries.
G0 phase
Which stage is most associated with a cell that is unable to divide again, such as a muscle or nerve cell?
G1 phase
G0 phase
G2 phase
M phase
S phase
sperm and egg cells
In the life cycle of animals, ________ have the haploid number of chromosomes.
skin and blood cells
sperm and egg cells
muscle and nerve cells
all body cells
crossing over of sister chromatids
Which of the following steps would NOT lead to variation of genetic material?
crossing over of sister chromatids
crossing over of homologous chromosomes
the combination of sperm and egg genes.
the random alignment of the chromosomes during metaphase I
bivalent
Another name for a tetrad is a/an
gamete.
öocyte.
polar body.
bivalent.
homologue
All of the choices are correct.
Eukaryotic chromosomes
consist of both DNA and protein.
may occur as chromatin.
contain histones responsible for packaging DNA to fit into a small space.
All of the choices are correct.
anaphase I
During which stage of meiosis does homologue separation occur?
prophase I
telophase I
prophase II
anaphase II
anaphase I
zygote
The cell formed through fertilization of an egg by a sperm is called a/an
zygote.
gamete.
egg cell.
sperm cell.
ovum.
metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.
Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as
proteinase enzymes making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues.
metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.
due to these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer.
growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign.
spreading of cancer by angiogenesis.
anaphase II
At which stage of meiosis is each chromosome composed of a single chromatid?
anaphase II
metaphase I
prophase II
prophase I
metaphase II
locus
The location on a chromosome where a particular gene is located is known as the:
diploid
autosome
dihybrid
allele
locus
sickle cell anemia
Which of the following is NOT a trait that is the result of, or is affected by, the interaction of more than one gene?
human skin color
sickle cell anemia
cleft palate
height
both A and C
Which of the following crosses would always result in offspring that only display the dominant phenotype?
TT x tt
Tt x Tt
TT x TT
Tt x tt
both A and C
He had studied mathematics and probability.
What aspect of Mendel's background gave him the necessary tools to discover the laws of inheritance?
He lived in Austria.
He corresponded with Charles Darwin.
He was a monk.
He was a teacher.
He had studied mathematics and probability.
an old theory that said that offspring show traits intermediate between those of the parents
What is the blending theory of inheritance?
an old theory that said that offspring show traits intermediate between those of the parents
Mendel's theory of how the traits of parents are passed to offspring through the gametes
Darwin's theory of how traits are passed from all parts of the parent's body into the gamete to be transmitted to the offspring
the modern theory of how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring
All of the above were important characteristics in Mendel's selection.
Which characteristic of pea plants were important in their selection as Mendel's research organism?
Peas are easy to cultivate.
Pea plants have a short generation time.
Pea plants are self-pollinating but can be cross-fertilized easily.
Many true-breeding varieties were available.
All of the above were important characteristics in Mendel's selection.
pulse
The vibration felt in arterial walls due to expansion of the aorta following ventricle contraction is the
cardiac cycle.
blood pressure.
pulse.
electrocardiogram.
Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, never cross the capillary wall into tissue fluid.
The fluid under a blister or the lymph that bathes the interstitial spaces between organs is very watery compared with the viscosity of blood plasma. Why?
The viscosity of blood is completely due to blood cells that never leave the vessels.
Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, never cross the capillary wall into tissue fluid.
These fluids are primarily water produced by cell respiration, and they are discarded interstitially.
Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, are concentrated in the lymph nodes.
The capillaries use active transport to retrieve large molecules that leaked away.
the release of carbon dioxide and absorption of oxygen by blood.
The primary function of the pulmonary circuit is
to supply the force to propel blood throughout the body.
nutrient exchange.
release of oxygen and absorption of carbon dioxide by the blood.
the release of carbon dioxide and absorption of oxygen by blood.
atrioventricular valves.
A heart murmur is a distortion of the heartbeat due to blood flowing back through a valve that should be closed. If the heart sound is lub-dub-ssshhh, the most likely cause is a failure of the
semilunar valves.
mitral (bicuspid) valve.
sinoatrial node to signal contraction.
atrioventricular valves.
AV node to signal contraction.
two atria and two ventricles
What would you find in the heart of a human?
one atrium and one ventricle
two atria and one ventricle
one atrium and two ventricles
two atria and a partially divided ventricle
two atria and two ventricles
diabetes
Major cardiovascular disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
hypertension.
stroke.
diabetes.
atherosclerosis.
Sequence: 3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4, 7
:Describe the events that occur in the clotting of blood by choosing the correct sequence of statements that outlines the process.
1. Platelets and injured tissue release prothrombin activator.
2. The activated fragments join end-to-end, forming long threads.
3. Platelets clump at the sight of puncture and partially seal the leak.
4. Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area and provide a framework for the clot.
5. Thrombin, acting as an enzyme, severs two amino acid chains (activated fragments) from each fibrinogen molecule.
6. Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin.
7. Red blood cells are trapped within the fibrin framework forming a clot.
Sequence: 1, 2, 6, 7, 4, 3, 5
Sequence: 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 2, 1
Sequence: 7, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, 6
Sequence: 3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4, 7
it does not contain hemoglobin or any other respiratory pigment.
When you step on a cockroach or smash a fly, the blood appears colorless because
the blood is enclosed in a closed circulatory system.
the blood is actually a colorless hemolymph that carries oxygen on molecules other than reddish hemoglobin.
it does not contain hemoglobin or any other respiratory pigment.
there are no cells in the hemolymph.
blood pressure and osmotic pressure
What two forces control the movement of fluid through the capillary wall?
blood pressure and osmotic pressure
the oxygen and nitrogen concentration
the number of veins and arteries
the thickness of the capillary wall and the number of cilia
skeletal muscle contraction
Veins primarily depend upon which of the following forces to return blood to the heart?
force of blood entering from the arteries
skeletal muscle contraction
valves to prevent blood back flow
All of the choices apply.
systole.
The Greek root word for "contraction" underlies the term
systole.
arteriole.
cardiovascular.
diastole.
thromboembolism.
both neutrophils and macrophages
Which of these white blood cells are phagocytic?
both neutrophils and macrophages
lymphocytes
macrophages
both lymphocytes and macrophages
neutrophils
All of the choices are means of lowering risk for CVD.
The leading cause of preventable death in the United States is cardiovascular disease. Which of the following are lifestyle modifications that would lower a person's risk of CVD?
not smoking
lose weight
lower fat intake
All of the choices are means of lowering risk for CVD.
They are mainly produced in the liver.
Which statement is NOT true about red blood cells?
Their normal life span is about 120 days.
They are biconcave disks that lack nuclei when mature.
There are about 6 million red blood cells per cubic millimeter of whole blood.
They are mainly produced in the liver.
Hemoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen loosely to transport it.
vena cava
Which structure does blood pass through immediately before entering the right atrium?
aorta
left atrium
vena cava
semilunar valve
atrioventricular valve
earthworm
Which organism has hemoglobin located in the fluid portion of the blood, giving it a red appearance?
earthworm
grasshopper
human
flatworm
bird
B antigens, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.
A person who is B positive will have
B antibodies, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.
B antigens, antibodies to B, and Rh antigens.
B antigens, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.
B antigens, antibodies to A, and no Rh antigens.
A antigens, antibodies to B, and Rh antigens.
aorta.
The Latin root word for "great artery" underlies the term
hepatic portal.
vena cava.
coronary.
pulmonary.
aorta.
a protein or polysaccharide that is recognized as foreign by a cell of the immune system
Which best describes an antigen?
a protein produced by a B cell that responds against a foreign protein
a protein or polysaccharide that is recognized as foreign by a cell of the immune system
the receptor on a T or B cell that recognizes a foreign protein
any cell of the immune system
All of the choices are correct.
The human heart is composed of
muscle fibers called myocardium.
an outer membranous sac called the pericardium.
endocardium.
All of the choices are correct.
B and C only are correct.
hepatic portal vein.
The structure that absorbs nutrients from the small intestines and delivers the nutrients in the blood to the liver is the
hepatic portal artery.
hepatic portal vein.
renal vein.
None of the choices are correct.
the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
"Artery" and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the name(s) of
the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
the hepatic and renal systems; they would have to be switched.
the hepatic portal vein to a hepatic portal artery.
the coronary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
none, since the aorta and vena cava do not have "artery" and "vein" in their name.
B lymphocytes
Which kind of white blood cell is involved in the production of antibodies?
monocytes
eosinophils
macrophage
neutrophils
B lymphocytes
irregular heart sounds instead of sharp lub-dub sounds
What would cause you to believe that someone has a heart murmur?
an irregular ECG
low blood pressure
irregular heart beats
irregular heart sounds instead of sharp lub-dub sounds
two atria and one ventricle
What would you find in the heart of an amphibian?
one atrium and one ventricle
two atria and a partially divided ventricle
two atria and one ventricle
two atria and two ventricles
one atrium and two ventricles
heart
The coronary arteries are important because they serve the
heart.
urinary tract.
brain.
lungs.
intestine and liver.
cardiovascular.
The Greek root words for "heart" and "vessels" underlies the term
atrioventricular.
thromboembolism.
arteriole.
cardiovascular.
diastole.
capillaries.
The vessels in our circulatory system that allow molecules to diffuse across to tissues are
venules.
veins.
arteries.
capillaries.
lymph vessels.
120/80
Normal blood pressure in a 25-year-old person would likely be close to ____ mm Hg.
150/95
120/50
120/80
200/120
100/40
A and B are correct.
Which of the following has a four-chambered heart like humans?
birds
some reptiles
amphibians
All of the choices are correct.
A and B are correct.
semilunar valve.
After leaving our left ventricle, blood next passes through the
atrioventricular valve.
left atrium.
semilunar valve.
aorta.
vena cava.
platelets
Which type of blood component is involved in the initiation of clotting?
platelets
red blood cells
white blood cells
plasma proteins
sinoatrial node.
The pacemaker of the cardiac conduction system is the
sinoatrial node.
medulla oblongata.
atrioventricular node.
Purkinje fibers.
two atria and a partially divided ventricle
What would you find in the heart of most reptiles?
two atria and a partially divided ventricle
one atrium and two ventricles
one atrium and one ventricle
two atria and one ventricle
two atria and two ventricles
absorb nutrients.
Microvilli serve to
synthesize vitamins.
secrete bile.
produce antibodies.
absorb nutrients.
Pepsin; amino acids
_____ acts on proteins to produce peptides which are later broken down into _____ in the small intestine.
Pepsin; amino acids
Salivary amylase; amino acids
Pepsin; fatty acids.
Maltase; glucose
planarian.
An animal with an incomplete gut is the
grasshopper.
earthworm.
squid.
planarian.
human.
Growth in children may be delayed or stunted if essential amino acids are not present in their diets.
Which of the following statements concerning dietary protein is true?
Growth in children may be delayed or stunted if essential amino acids are not present in their diets.
The average American eats about half the recommended protein.
Dietary protein is digested to nucleic acids, which are used to make DNA.
It is not possible for vegetarians to have a balanced diet with adequate protein intake.
Protein should supply the bulk of our dietary calories.
B and C are correct.
If a persons diet is lacking two essential unsaturated fatty acids (alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids) they are likely to have
appendicitis.
skin problems.
delayed growth.
B and C are correct.
None of the choices are correct.
Feces consists of about 25% water and 75% solids that are mainly bacteria from the intestinal tract.
Which of the following statements about the colon is NOT true?
The colon is active in water absorption, removing about 95% of the water that enters it and returning it to the bloodstream.
Insufficient absorption of water can result in diarrhea that may be life-threatening.
The last section of the colon is the rectum, which terminates in the anus.
Feces consists of about 25% water and 75% solids that are mainly bacteria from the intestinal tract.
Cells in the walls of the large intestine absorb vitamin K that is produced by bacteria resident in the colon.
esophagus.
The tubular structure that moves food by peristalsis from the mouth to the stomach is the
trachea.
esophagus.
glottis.
tongue.
epiglottis.
esophagus.
The Greek root words meaning "within" and "eat" are the basis for the term
stomach.
esophagus.
intestine.
pancreas.
mouth.
Sodium bicarbonate
________ is contained in pancreatic juice to neutralize the acidity of chyme from the stomach.
Bile
Trypsin
Sodium bicarbonate
Pancreatic amylase
both plants and meat
The dentition of omnivores is specialized for ______ in their diets.
meat only
bacteria only
both plants and meat
plants only
sphincters.
Muscles that encircle tubes and act as valves are called
sphincters.
mucosa.
lacteals.
constrictors.
dilators.
stomach and small intestine.
Protein digestion is occurs in the
stomach, esophagus, and small intestine.
mouth and large intestine.
mouth, stomach, and small intestine.
small intestine, large intestine, and mouth.
stomach and small intestine.
2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 promolars, 3 molars
Which represents the proper sequence of human teeth from the front to the back of the mouth?
3 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 2 molars
2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars
2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 promolars, 3 molars
2 incisors, 2 canines, 2 premolars, 3 molars
2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 2 molars
2.0
The pH of the stomach is usually about ______.
4.0
2.0
7.0
5.0
8.0
jaundice.
Abnormally large amounts of bilirubin in the blood will cause
the rolling stones.
jaundice.
kidney stones.
cirrhosis of the liver.
gallstones.
appendix
Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ of digestion?
pancreas
salivary glands
appendix
gall bladder
All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following statements about the tongue is true?
The tongue mixes food with saliva and assists in swallowing.
The tongue can detect taste, touch, and pressure.
The tongue consists of striated muscle under voluntary control.
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are true.
The digestive system functions in the
chemical breakdown of food.
mechanical breakdown of food.
elimination of waste products.
absorption of food molecules.
All of the choices are true.
tearing.
The function of canine teeth in humans is
grinding.
tearing.
crushing.
shearing.
biting.
They can become inflamed and cause tonsillitis.
Which is NOT true of human salivary glands?
There are three pairs that open by ducts into the mouth.
They produce an enzyme to begin the digestion of starch.
The production of saliva aids in the mechanical digestion process.
They can become inflamed and cause tonsillitis.
dolphin
Which of the following would be classified as a carnivore?
brown bear
dolphin
human
raccoon
rat
microvilli.
The finger-like projections along the surface of the small intestines are called
lacteals.
capillaries.
appendices.
microvilli.
mucosa.
producing bile.
The liver functions in digestion by
producing urea.
producing bile.
destroying old red blood cells.
converting hemoglobin to bilirubin and biliverdin.
producing blood proteins.
squids are continuous feeders.
All of the following statements are true about squids EXCEPT
digestion occurs in the stomach and a cecum.
the squid's tentacles seize its prey.
squids are continuous feeders.
squids are molluscs.
the mouth has jaws that bite off pieces of prey with the help of a toothy radula.
mouth.
In humans, digestion of starches begins in the
stomach.
large intestine.
mouth.
esophagus.
duodenum.
glycogen.
In the body, glucose is stored in the liver as
glycogen.
fat.
protein.
starch.
amino acids.
All of the above are correct.
The small intestines receive
bile from the liver and gall bladder.
pancreatic juices from the pancreas.
chyme from the stomach.
All of the above are correct.
A and C are correct.
storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to continue chemical digestion.
The function of the human stomach is
to produce highly basic fluids to kill most bacteria.
to begin the absorption of most small food molecules, especially sugars and alcohol.
promotion of bacterial fermentation.
absorption of iron to build hemoglobin for red blood cells.
storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to continue chemical digestion.
iron
Which mineral is especially important for women to incorporate into their diet if they are menstruating?
aluminum
sodium
iron
magnesium
epiglottis.
Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the
larynx.
glottis.
pharynx.
sphincter muscle.
epiglottis.
LDL; HDL
_____ molecules carry cholesterol from the liver to cells and to the arterial walls, whereas _____ transports cholesterol from the cells to the liver, where it is converted to bile salts.
LDL; insulin
HDL; LDL
HDL; trans-fats
LDL; HDL
trypsin
nucleic acid - Which of the following human digestive enzymes is NOT correctly matched to its substrate?
pepsin - protein
maltase - maltose
trypsin - nucleic acid
lipase - fat
salivary amylase - starch
sodium.
Water retention and high blood pressure are associated with an excess intake of
calcium.
sodium.
magnesium.
iron.
zinc.
pancreas
Which of the following is considered an accessory gland in the digestive system?
stomach
esophagus
pancreas
cecum
pharynx
cirrhosis
What is a chronic disease of the liver, often seen in alcoholics, where healthy tissue is replaced by inactive fibrous scar tissue?
AIDS
appendicitis
Hepatitis A
cirrhosis
pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
The digestive juices found in the stomach include
pancreatic and salivary amylase.
trypsin and maltase.
insulin and bile.
pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid.
a herbivore with extra stomach separations.
A ruminant is
a herbivore with no extra digestive specializations.
a carnivore with no extra digestive specializations.
an omnivore.
a carnivore with extra stomach separations.
a herbivore with extra stomach separations.
maltose; glucose
In the first step of starch digestion, starch is converted to _______, which is then digested to ________ by the enzyme maltase.
amino acids; proteins
glucose; maltose
fat; glycerol and 3 fatty acids
maltose; glucose
stomach.
Chyme is produced in the
small intestine.
stomach.
large intestine.
esophagus.
the clam has a single opening for the entry of food and the exit of digestive wastes.
All of the following statements are true about the clam's digestion EXCEPT
the clam has a single opening for the entry of food and the exit of digestive wastes.
small food particles are collected on the gills and moved by cilia to the mouth.
the clam is a filter feeder.
the clam is a continuous feeder.
the small intestine; detoxified
The hepatic portal vein brings blood to the liver from the _______ and as the blood passes through the liver it is __________.
the small intestine; detoxified
the pancreas; oxygenated
the lungs; deoxygenated
the mouth; acidified
production of vitamin D
Which of the following is NOT a function of bile salts?
act as emulsifiers
aid the enzyme lipase in the digestion of fat molecules
production of vitamin D
needed for fat digestion
F1 generation
In a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent, which generation is always completely heterozygous?
F3 generation
F2 generation
F1 generation
P generation
the genotype can only be tt.
If a pea plant shows a recessive phenotype,
the genotype may be TT or Tt.
the genotype can only be TT.
the genotype may be TT, Tt, or tt.
the genotype may be Tt or tt.
the genotype can only be tt.
both their daughters and sons; only their daughters
Women with X-linked disorders always pass the genes for the disorder to ______, while men with X-linked disorders always pass the genes for the disorder to _______.
both their daughters and sons; only their daughters
both their daughters and sons; only their sons
both their daughters and sons; their daughters and sons
only their daughters; only their daughters
XYY; spermatogenesis
Generally, it is not possible to determine whether nondisjunction failed to occur in oogenesis or spermatogenesis. However, it is possible to assert that _________ resulted in nondisjunction in __________.
XYY; spermatogenesis
XXY; oogenesis
XO; oogenesis
XXY; spermatogenesis
XXX; oogenesis
AA, Aa, and aa.
The F2 offspring of a classic Mendelian monohybrid cross between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive parents would produce the genotype(s)
Aa only.
AA only.
AA and Aa.
AA, Aa, and aa.
Aa and aa.
Aa and aa.
The offspring of a monohybrid testcross would have what possible genotype(s)?
Aa and aa.
aa only.
AA and Aa.
AA only.
AA, Aa, and aa.
alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes
What are alleles?
the locations of genes on a chromosome
recessive forms of a kind of characteristic carried by genes
genes for different traits, such as hair color or eye color
alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue eyes or brown eyes
dominant forms of a kind of characteristic carried by genes
Aa
If an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with an individual with a recessive phenotype, 4 of their 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. What is the genotype of the first parent?
AA
aa
The answer cannot be determined from this information.
Aa
semilunar valve.
After leaving our left ventricle, blood next passes through the
atrioventricular valve.
left atrium.
semilunar valve.
aorta.
vena cava.