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AP Art History

A Timeline
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Stone Age
(30,000 b.c.-2500 b.c.)

Characteristics: Cave painting, fertility goddesses, megalithic structures

Main Works/Artists: Lascaux Cave Painting, Woman of Willendorf, Stonehenge

Ice Age ends (10,000 b.c.-8,000 b.c.); New Stone Age and first permanent settlements (8000 b.c.-2500 b.c.)
Mesopotamian
(3500 b.c.-539 b.c.)

Characteristics: Warrior art and narration in stone relief

Main Works/Artists: Standard of Ur, Gate of Ishtar, Stele of Hammurabi's Code

Sumerians invent writing (3400 b.c.); Hammurabi writes his law code (1780 b.c.); Abraham founds monotheism
Egyptian
(3100 b.c.-30 b.c.)

Characteristics: Art with an afterlife focus: pyramids and tomb painting

Main Works/Artists: Imhotep, Step Pyramid, Great Pyramids, Bust of Nefertiti

Narmer unites Upper/Lower Egypt (3100 b.c.); Rameses II battles the Hittites (1274 b.c.); Cleopatra dies (30 b.c.)
Greek and Hellenistic
(850 b.c.-31 b.c.)

Characteristics:Greek idealism: balance, perfect proportions; architectural orders(Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)

Main Works/Artists:
Parthenon, Myron, Phidias, Polykleitos, Praxiteles

Athens defeats Persia at Marathon (490 b.c.); Peloponnesian Wars (431 b.c.-404 b.c.); Alexander the Great's conquests (336 b.c.-323 b.c.)
Roman
(500 b.c.- a.d. 476)

Characteristics: Roman realism: practical and down to earth; the arch

Main Works/Artists:
Augustus of Primaporta, Colosseum, Trajan's Column, Pantheon

Julius Caesar assassinated (44 b.c.); Augustus proclaimed Emperor (27 b.c.); Diocletian splits Empire (a.d. 292); Rome falls (a.d. 476)
Indian, Chinese, and Japanese
(653 b.c.-a.d. 1900)

Characteristics: Serene, meditative art, and Arts of the Floating World

Main Works/Artists: Gu Kaizhi, Li Cheng, Guo Xi, Hokusai, Hiroshige

Birth of Buddha (563 b.c.); Silk Road opens (1st century b.c.); Buddhism spreads to China (1st-2nd centuries a.d.) and Japan (5th century a.d.)
Byzantine and Islamic
Characteristics: Heavenly Byzantine mosaics; Islamic architecture and amazing maze-like design

Main Works/Artists: Hagia Sophia, Andrei Rublev, Mosque of Córdoba, the Alhambra

Justinian partly restores Western Roman Empire (a.d. 533-a.d. 562); Iconoclasm Controversy (a.d. 726-a.d. 843); Birth of Islam (a.d. 610) and Muslim Conquests (a.d. 632-a.d. 732)
Middle Ages
(500-1400)

Characteristics: Celtic art, Carolingian Renaissance, Romanesque, Gothic

Main Works/Artists: St. Sernin, Durham Cathedral, Notre Dame, Chartres, Cimabue, Duccio, Giotto

Viking Raids (793-1066); Battle of Hastings (1066); Crusades I-IV (1095-1204); Black Death (1347-1351); Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
Early and High Renaissance
(1400-1550)

Characteristics: Rebirth of classical culture

Main Works/Artists: Ghiberti's Doors, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael

Gutenberg invents movable type (1447); Turks conquer Constantinople (1453); Columbus lands in New World (1492); Martin Luther starts Reformation (1517)
Venetian and Northern Renaissance
(1430-1550)

Characteristics: The Renaissance spreads north- ward to France, the Low Countries, Poland, Germany, and England

Main Works/Artists: Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Dürer, Bruegel, Bosch, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden

Council of Trent and Counter-Reformation (1545-1563); Copernicus proves the Earth revolves around the Sun (1543
Mannerism
(1527-1580)

Characteristics: Art that breaks the rules; artifice over nature

Main Works/Artists: Tintoretto, El Greco, Pontormo, Bronzino, Cellini

Magellan circumnavigates the globe (1520-1522)
Baroque
(1600-1750)

Characteristics: Splendor and flourish for God; art as a weapon in the religious wars

Main Works/Artists: Reubens, Rembrandt, Caravaggio, Palace of Versailles

Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants (1618-1648)
Neoclassical
(1750-1850)

Characteristics: Art that recaptures Greco-Roman grace and grandeur

Main Works/Artists:David, Ingres, Greuze, Canova

Enlightenment (18th century); Industrial Revolution (1760-1850)
Romanticism
(1780-1850)

Characteristics: The triumph of imagination and individuality

Main Works/Artists: Caspar Friedrich, Gericault, Delacroix, Turner, Benjamin West

American Revolution (1775-1783); French Revolution (1789-1799); Napoleon crowned emperor of France (1803)
Realism
1848-1900)

Characteristics: Celebrating working class and peasants; en plein air rustic painting

Main Works/Artists: Corot, Courbet, Daumier, Millet

European democratic revolutions of 1848
Impressionism
(1865-1885)

Characteristics: Capturing fleeting effects of natural light

Main Works/Artists: Monet, Manet, Renoir, Pissarro, Cassatt, Morisot, Degas

Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871); Unification of Germany (1871)
Post-Impressionism
(1885-1910)

Characteristics: A soft revolt against Impressionism

Main Works/Artists: Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat

Belle Époque (late-19th-century Golden Age); Japan defeats Russia (1905)
Fauvism and Expressionism
(1900-1935)

Characteristics: Harsh colors and flat surfaces (Fauvism); emotion distorting form

Main Works/Artists:Matisse, Kirchner, Kandinsky, Marc

Boxer Rebellion in China (1900); World War (1914-1918)
Cubism, Futurism, Supremativism, Constructivism, De Stijl
(1905-1920)

Characteristics: Pre- and Post-World War 1 art experiments: new forms to express modern life

Main Works/Artists: Picasso, Braque, Leger, Boccioni, Severini, Malevich

Russian Revolution (1917); American women franchised (1920)
Dada and Surrealism
(1917-1950)

Characteristics: Ridiculous art; painting dreams and exploring the unconscious

Main Works/Artists: Duchamp, Dalí, Ernst, Magritte, de Chirico, Kahlo

Disillusionment after World War I; The Great Depression (1929-1938); World War II (1939-1945) and Nazi horrors; atomic bombs dropped on Japan (1945)
Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art
(1940s-1950s) (1960s)

Characteristics: Post-World War II: pure abstraction and expression without form; popular art absorbs consumerism

Main Works/Artists: Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning, Rothko, Warhol, Lichtenstein

Cold War and Vietnam War (U.S. enters 1965); U.S.S.R. suppresses Hungarian revolt (1956) Czechoslovakian revolt (1968)
Postmodernism and Deconstructivism
(1970- )

Characteristics: Art without a center and reworking and mixing past styles

Main Works/Artists: Gerhard Richter, Cindy Sherman, Anselm Kiefer, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid

Nuclear freeze movement; Cold War fizzles; Communism collapses in Eastern Europe and U.S.S.R. (1989-1991)
Meow Town Meow Cats
Characteristics:

Main Works/Artists: